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Table 2 Comparison of bacterial culture and ribosomal sequencing results

From: Development and evaluation of a novel fast broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing assay for diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis: multi-year experience in a large Canadian healthcare zone and a literature review

Duke’s criteria Cardiac tissue Tissue gram stain Tissue culture Blood culture Fast DPO PCR Bacterial 16S sequencing Identification Diagnostic impact
Definite MV GPC No growth No growth Positive Staphylococcus lugdenensis New
Definite MV Negative No growth No Growth Positive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis New
Definite PAV GPB Cons; broth only No growth Positive P. acnes New
Definite MV GPC S. Mitis No growth Positive Streptococcus sanguinis Change
Definite MV papillary leaflet Negative S. bovis group S. salivarius Positive S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianis Change
Definite AV GPC No growth S. bovis Positive S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianis Change
Definite MV Vegetation Negative No growth S. mitis Positive S. oralis/sanguinis Change
Definite AV Negative No growth S. salivarius Positive S. mitis group (S. cristatus/oralis/mitis) Change
Definite MV Negative No growth S. salivarius Positive S. mitis group (S. cristatus/oralis/infantis) Change
Definite AV vegetation Negative S. bovis group S. bovis Positive S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Change
Definite AV vegetation Negative No growth GGS Positive S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Change
Definite PAV Negative E. faecalis/CONS; broth only S. agalactiae Positive S. agalactiae Change
Definite AV vegetation Negative No growth S. mitis Positive S. sanguinis Change
Definite PMV GPC S. mitis group Group C Strep Positive S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Change
Definite AV GPC S. mitis group S. mitis Positive S. sanguinis Change
Definite PAV Negative No growth CoNS Positive E. faecalis Change
Definite MV Negative CoNS broth only CoNS Positive S. epidermidis Change
Definite MV Vegetation Mixed GPC No growth S. mitis Positive S. mitis None
Definite MV Negative S. agalactiae; broth only S. agalactiae Positive S. agalactiae None
Definite AV abscess Negative No growth S. mitis Positive S. mitis group (mitis/tigurinus) None
Definite AV abscess Negative Enterococcus faecalis; broth only E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite MV Negative No growth Haemophilus parainfluenzae Positive H. parainfluenzae None
Definite AV Negative No growth Streptococcus pneumoniae Positive S. pneumoniae None
Definite AV Vegetation Positive E. faecalis E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite MV GPC No growth S. mitis Positive S. mitis None
Definite AV Negative E. faecalis E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite AV Negative No growth E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite AV Negative No growth E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite Aortic lesion Negative No growth Granulicatella adiacens Positive G. adiacens None
Definite AV GPC No growth E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite AV Negative S. lugdenensis S. lugdenensis Positive S. lugdenensis None
Definite AV GPC No growth S. mutans Positive S. mutans None
Definite Aortic annulus Negative No growth S. mitis Positive S. mitis None
Definite AV Negative Cardiobacterium hominis C. hominis Positive C. hominis None
Definite AV leaflet Negative No growth S. agalactiae Positive S. agalactiae None
Definite MV Negative S. lugdenensis S. lugdenensis Positive S. lugdenensis None
Definite AV leaflet Negative E. faecalis E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite MV vegetation Negative S. lugdenensis; broth only S. lugdenensis Positive S. lugdenensis None
Definite AV; left atrial lesion Negative S. aureus; broth only S. aureus Positive S. aureus None
Definite AV Negative No growth S. mitis Positive S. mitis/sanguinis None
Definite PAV Negative No growth S. salivarius Positive S. salivarius None
Definite AV Negative E. coli No growth Positive E. coli None
Definite MV vegetation GPB H. parainfluenzae H. parainfluenzae Positive H. parainfluenzae None
Definite MV Negative CoNS; broth only No growth Negative Not Done None
Definite MV Negative No growth E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite Aorta Negative No Growth E. faecalis Positive E. faecalis None
Definite AV Negative No Growth S. aureus Negative Not done None
Definite AV Negative No Growth S. aureus Positive Mixed None
Definite AV vegetation Negative S. bovis S. bovis Positive S. bovis None
Definite AV Positive S. aureus S. aureus Negative Negative None
Possible PAV Negative No growth No Growth Positive Acinetobacter junii New
Possible AV Negative No Growth No Growth Positive Delftia tsuruhatensis New
Possible AV Negative No Growth No Growth Positive S. infantis New
Possible AV Negative No growth No growth Negative Negative None
Possible AV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Possible PAV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Possible AV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Possible AV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative AV Negative No Growth No Growth Positive E. faecalis New
Negative MV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative MV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative PMV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative AV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative AV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative AV vegetation Negative No Growth No Growth Positive Mixed None
Negative MV thrombus Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative MV Negative No Growth No Growth Negative Negative None
Negative AV Negative No Growth No Growth Positive Mixed None
  1. AV aortic valve, CoNS coagulase negative Staphylococcus, GBS group B Streptococcus, GCS group C Streptococcus, GGS group G Streptococcus, GPC gram positive cocci, GPB gram positive bacilli, MV mitral valve, PAV prosthetic aortic valve, PMV prosthetic mitral valve. New indicates a new microbiologic diagnosis was made based on bacterial sequencing results. Change indicates that the microbiologic agent was changed or clarified