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Table 1 Quality assessment of included case control studies

From: The diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for Lyme borreliosis in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Design RoB_P CrA_P RoB_I CrA_I RoB_RS CrA_RS RoB_TaF
Ang 2011 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Ang 2012 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Bergstrom 1991 Case control High High High High High Low High
Branda 2013 Case control High High Unclear Low High Low High
Cerar 2006 Case control High High Unclear Low Low Low High
Cerar 2010 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Christova 2003 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Cinco 2006 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Dessau 2010 Case control High High Unclear Low High Low High
Dessau 2013 Case control High High Unclear Low High Low High
Flisiak 1996 Case control High High Unclear Low Low Low High
Flisiak 1998 Case control High High Unclear Low Low Low High
Goettner 2005 Case control High High Unclear High High Low High
Goossens 2000 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Goossens 2001 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Gueglio 1996 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Hansen 1988 Case control High High High High Unclear Low High
Hansen 1989 Case control High High High High Low Low High
Hansen 1991 Case control High High High Low Low Low High
Hernandez 2003 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Hofmann 1990 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Hofmann 1996 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Hofstad 1987 Case control High High High High Low Low High
Hunfeld 2002 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Jovivic 2003 Case control High High High/Unclear* High Unclear Low High
Kaiser 1998 Case control High High High High High Low High
Kaiser 1999inf Case control High High High High High Low High
Karlsson 1989eur Case control High High High/Unclear* High Low Low High
Karlsson 1989siid Case control High High High High Low Low High
Lahdenne 2003 Case control High High High Low Unclear Low High
Lakos 2005 Case control High High Low High/Low* High Low High
Lange 1991 Case control High High Unclear High/Low* Unclear Low High
Lencakova 2008 Case control High High Low/Unclear* High/Low* Unclear Low High
Marangoni 2005jmm Case control High High Unclear Low Low Low High
Marangoni 2005new Case control High High Unclear Low* Low Low High
Marangoni 2008 Case control High High Unclear Unclear** Unclear Low High
Mathiesen 1996 Case control High High High/Low* High/Low* High Low High
Mathiesen 1998 Case control High High High/Unclear* High/Low* Low Low High
Nicolini 1992 Case control High High High High Unclear Low High
Nohlmans 1994 Case control High High High/Unclear* High/Low* Unclear Low High
Oksi 1995 Case control High High High/Unclear* High/Low* Unclear Low High
Olsson 1991 Case control High High High High Unclear Low High
Panelius 2001 Case control High High High High High Low High
Putzker 1995 Case control High High Unclear Low High Low High
Rauer 1995 Case control High High High High High Low High
Reiber 2013 Case control High High High Unclear Low Low High
Rijpkema 1994 Case control High High Unclear High/Low* Unclear Low High
Ruzic 2002 Case control High High Unclear Low Unclear Low High
Ryffel 1998 Case control High High Unclear High High Low High
Schulte 2004 Case control High High Unclear High High Low High
Smismans 2006 Case control High High Unclear Low High Low High
Tjernberg 2007 Case control High High Unclear Low/Unclear* High Low High
Tjernberg 2011 Case control High High Unclear Low High Low High
VanBurgel 2011 Case control High High Unclear Low High Low High
Wilske 1993 Case control High High High/Unclear* High/Low* High Low High
Wilske 1999 Case control High High Unclear High High Low High
Zoller 1990 Case control High High Unclear High Unclear Low High
  1. RoB_P: Risk of Bias in patient sampling; RoB_I: Risk of Bias in Index test; RoB_RS: Risk of Bias in Reference Standard; RoB_TaF: Risk of Bias in timing and flow. CrA_P: Concerns regarding applicability of patient sample; CrA_I: Concerns regarding applicability of Index Test; CrA_RS: Concerns regarding applicability of Reference Standard. * some studies evaluated more than one test and evaluated these in different ways (e.g. for one test the cut-off value was pre-specified, while for the other test it was based on the results)