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Table 1 A summary of the descriptive characteristics of included studies

From: Hepatitis B in Ghana: a systematic review & meta-analysis of prevalence studies (1995-2015)

Study No Author Details Year of Publication Design Region of study Study population Age group Setting Sample size(n) Method HBsAg + (%) Quality Grade
1 Addai-Mensah et al. [30] 2015 Cross-sectional Ashanti Blood donorsb 17–60 Urban 400 Rapid test 6.75 % Medium
2 Adjei et al. [31] 2006 Cross-sectional Eastern & Greater Accra Prison inmates & Officers 17–84 Urban 363 ELISA 14.3 % High
3 Adjei et al. [32] 2008 Cross-sectional National (Excludes Upper East & West) Prison inmates & Officers 16–84 Urban 1811 ELISA 22.1 % High
4 Allain et al. [33] 2003 Cross-sectional Ashanti Blood donors & Patients 16–59 Urban 383 Mixed methods 13.85 % High
5 Allain et al. [34] 2009 Cross-Sectional Ashanti Blood donors >16 years Urban 51100 Rapid test 11.3 % High
6 Allain et al. [35] 2010 Cross-sectional Ashanti Blood donors 31.0a Urban 11000 Rapid test 14.2 % High
7 Amidu et al. [36] 2010 Cross-sectional Upper East Blood donors 17–58 Urban 4146 Rapid test 12.64 % Medium
8 Amidu et a.l [37] 2012 Cross sectional Ashanti Community screenees 15–38 Urban 783 Rapid test 8.68 % High
9 Antwi-Baffour et al. [38] 2014 Cross sectional Greater Accra Sickle cell patients n.s Urban 202 Rapid test 3.50 % Low
10 Apea-Kubi et al. [39] 2006 Cross-sectional Greater Accra Pregnant & non-pregnant women 29.6a Urban 517 Rapid test 16.8 % High
11 Blankson et al. [8] 2005 Case-control Greater Accra Cirrhotic & non-cirrhotic patients 15–90 Urban 350 ELISA 14.6 % High
12 Candotti et al. [40] 2007 Cross-sectional Ashanti Pregnant women n.s Urban 1368 Rapid test 16.0 % High
13 Cho et al. [41] 2012 Cross-sectional Eastern Pregnant Women n.s Urban 1500 Rapid test 10.6 % High
14 Damale et al. [42] 2005 Cross-sectional Greater Accra Parturients (pregnant women) 27.0a Urban 638 n.s 10.5 % Medium
15 Dongdem et al. [43] 2012 Cross-sectional Northern Blood donors 20–29 years Urban 6321 Rapid test 11.5 % High
16 Ephraim et al. [44] 2014 Cross-sectional Central Type 2 Diabetics n.s Urban 110 Rapid test 5.50 % Medium
17 Ephraim et al. [45] 2015 Cross-sectional Ashanti Pregnant women 10–40 year Urban 168 Rapid test 16.0 % Medium
18 Geretti et al. [46] 2010 Cross sectional Ashanti HIV patients n.s Urban 838 Mixed methods 16.7 % High
19 Kubio et al. [47] 2012 Report review Northern Blood donors n.s Rural 853 n.s 7.50 % Low
20 Matinson et al. [48] 1996 Cross-sectional Ashanti Children 6–18 Rural 803 immunoassay 15.8 % Medium
21 Matinson et al. [49] 1998 Cross-sectional Ashanti Community screenees . > 1 Rural 1385 immunoassay 20.9 % Medium
22 Mutocheluh et al. [50] 2014 Cross-sectional Brong-Ahafo Blood donors 17–57 Urban 164 ELISA 14.6 % High
23 Nkrumah et al. [51] 2011 Cross-sectional Ashanti Blood donors 26–35 years Rural 2773 Rapid test 10.53 % Medium
24 Nsiah et al. [52] 2012 Cross-Sectional Ashanti Sickle cell patients 10–18 Urban 330 Immunoassay 3.60 % Low
25 Owiredu et al. [53] 2012 Cross-sectional National (all regions) Blood donors n.s Urban 480 Mixed methods 8.13 % High
26 Owusu-Ofori et al. [54] 2005 Cross-sectional Ashanti Blood donors n.s Urban 9372 Rapid test 13.4 % High
27 Rufai et al. [55] 2014 Cross-sectional Ashanti Blood donors 16–59 Urban 150 Immunoassay 13.3 % Medium
28 Sagoe et al. [56] 2012 Cross-sectional Greater Accra HIV patients ≥18 years Urban 138 ELISA 13.0 % High
29 Sarkodie et al. [57] 2001 Cross-sectional Ashanti Blood donors 16–52 Urban 3587 Mixed methods 15.3 % High
30 Walana et al. [58] 2014 Cross-sectional Brong-Ahafo Blood donors 20–49 years Urban 3402 ICT 9.60 % Medium
  1. a average, HBsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen, n.s not specified, VBD Voluntary blood donor, ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay, ICT immunochromatography, bBlood donors is used to represent either voluntary or replacement donors or both