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Table 2 Associations between reproductive health and vaginal hygiene and transient or persistent HPV infections in the Ludwig-McGill cohort study

From: Reproductive and genital health and risk of cervical human papillomavirus infection: results from the Ludwig-McGill cohort study

Variable Transient HPV infectiona Persistent HPV infectionb
ORc 95 % CI ORc 95 % CI
Reproductive Health Factors
 Condom Use
  Former vs. Never 1.33 0.95, 1.86 1.06 0.77, 1.46
  Current vs. Never 1.47 1.00, 2.16 1.24 0.86, 1.80
 Oral Contraceptives
  < 6 years vs. Never 1.16 0.76, 1.75 1.02 0.69, 1.52
  6+ years vs. Never 0.90 0.56, 1.46 1.14 0.73, 1.77
 Intrauterine Device
  Yes vs. No 0.65 0.48, 0.87 0.77 0.57, 1.03
 Tubal Sterilization
  Yes vs. No 0.78 0.47, 1.28 0.75 0.46, 1.23
 Contraceptive Injection
  Yes vs. No 1.58 1.10, 2.26 1.31 0.91, 1.89
 Natural Products
  Yes vs. No 0.17 0.02, 1.31 0.46 0.14, 1.55
 Vaginal Products
  Yes vs. No 0.88 0.30, 2.56 0.76 0.26, 2.21
Genital Health and Hygiene Factors
 Menstrual Cloth
  Yes vs. No 1.00 0.74, 1.36 0.79 0.58, 1.06
 Hygienic Tampon
  Yes vs. No 1.48 1.00, 2.20 1.42 0.96, 2.08
 Douching
  Frequent vs. Infrequent 1.10 0.60, 2.00 1.12 0.62, 2.01
 Douching Products
  Natural vs. None 0.86 0.62, 1.19 0.80 0.57, 1.12
  Medical vs. None 0.82 0.28, 2.40 1.70 0.72, 4.02
  Unknown vs. None 0.36 0.09, 1.51 1.03 0.37, 2.87
 Genital Discomfort
  Yes vs. No 0.87 0.65, 1.18 0.89 0.67, 1.20
 Recent Discomfort
  Yes vs. No 1.06 0.79, 1.41 1.22 0.93, 1.59
 Pain or Bleeding
  Yes vs. No 0.61 0.07, 5.03 0.90 0.18, 4.48
Gynecologic Products
 Antibiotic
  Former vs. Never 1.00 0.53, 1.89 2.09 1.10, 3.98
  Current vs. Never 0.89 0.37, 2.15 2.50 1.23, 5.08
 Antifungal
  Former vs. Never 1.74 0.94, 3.20 1.51 0.81, 2.82
  Current vs. Never 1.52 0.67, 3.45 1.80 0.78, 4.13
 Abrasion
  Former vs. Never 4.17 0.49, 35.27 2.47 0.40, 15.26
  Current vs. Never 5.40 0.26, 113.29 - -
 External Products
  Former vs. Never 1.46 0.18, 11.99 0.91 0.08, 10.66
  Current vs. Never 6.43 0.65, 63.70 - -
 Unknown Products
  Former vs. Never 1.03 0.58, 1.84 1.14 0.65, 2.02
  Current vs. Never 1.31 0.62, 2.81 1.93 0.95, 3.93
 Home-made Products
  Natural vs. None 1.00 0.74, 1.37 0.93 0.69, 1.26
  Medical vs. None 0.97 0.47, 1.98 0.77 0.38, 1.56
  Unknown vs. None 1.17 0.24, 5.73 3.20 1.00, 10.24
Vaginal Health Characteristics
 Cervical Ectropion
  Yes vs. No 1.01 0.41, 2.52 0.81 0.30, 2.19
 Gynecologic Surgery
  Yes vs. No 1.22 0.72, 2.04 1.39 0.86, 2.25
 Gynecologic Infection/Treatment
  Yes vs. No 0.90 0.65, 1.24 1.14 0.84, 1.54
 Previous Gynecologic Infection
  HPV vs. None 3.23 1.91, 5.47 2.46 1.40, 4.31
  Non-HPV vs. None 0.95 0.66, 1.37 1.15 0.82, 1.61
Cytology Observations
 Bacterial Infection
  Yes vs. No 1.16 0.69, 1.95 1.45 0.91, 2.31
 Fungal Infection
  Yes vs. No 1.05 0.63, 1.75 1.24 0.77, 2.01
 General Inflammation
  Yes vs. No 1.73 1.27, 2.35 1.62 1.20, 2.19
  1. a Transient HPV infections were defined as one positive test result in the first four visits, followed by two subsequent negative results
  2. b Persistent HPV infections were defined as two or more positive HPV test results over the first four visits, with no more than one negative result between two positive test results
  3. c Odds ratios were adjusted for age, lifetime number of sexual partners and empirical confounders (identified using a 5 % change in estimate strategy) such as race, marital status, education, age at first intercourse, age at menarche, number of pregnancies, smoking, alcohol drinking and years since last Pap smear
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