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Table 1 Characteristics of studies that reporting chikungunya-dengue co-infection

From: Co-distribution and co-infection of chikungunya and dengue viruses

Location Year Study type DENV+ and/or CHIKV+ cases Co-infection cases Co-infection prevalence (%) Strains CHIKV/DENV Vector Laboratory method for CHIKV/DENV detection Reference
Africa Region        
 Angola 2014 Case report NA 1 NA CEA/4 NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA + RT-PCR [48]
 Gabon 2007 Outbreak report 337 8 2.4 NR/2 Ae. albopictus RT-PCR/RT-PCR [31]
  2007 Surveillance 374 9 2.4 WA/2 Ae. albopictus RT-PCR/RT-PCR [30]
  2008 Surveillance 164 0 0 WA/2 Ae. albopictus RT-PCR/RT-PCR [30]
  2009 Surveillance 14 0 0 WA/2 Ae. albopictus RT-PCR/RT-PCR [30]
  2010 Surveillance 1400 28 2.0 WA/2 Ae. albopictus RT-PCR/RT-PCR [30]
Madagascar 2006 Cross-sectional 38 10 26.3 CEA/1 Ae. albopictus IgM ELISA + RT-PCR/IgM ELISA + RT-PCR [25]
 Nigeria 2008 Cross-sectional 183 63 34.4 NR/NR NR PRNT/PRNT [32]
  2014 Case report NA 1 NA NR/NR NR RT-PCR/RT-PCR [50]
 Tanzania 2013 Cross-sectional 93 4 4.3 NR/NR NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA + RT-PCR [49]
Region of the Americas        
 St. Martin 2013-14 Outbreak report 651 16 2.5 Asian/1,2,4 NR IgM ELISA + RT-PCR/IgM ELISA + RT-PCR [47]
South-East Asian Region        
 India 1964 Case report 332 7 2.1 NR/2 NR HI + Ig detection/HI + Ig detection [19]
  1964 Cross-sectional 294 8 2.7 Asian/2 Ae. aegypti HI + Ig detection/HI + Ig detection [20]
  2006 Outbreak report 65 6 9.2 CEA/1,2,3,4 NR RT-PCR/RT-PCR [28]
  2007 Cross-sectional 387 8 2.1 NR/3,4 NR RT-PCR/IgM ELISA + RT-PCR [34]
  2008 Case report NA 1 NA NR/NR NR IgM IFA/IgM ELISA + IFA [33]
  2009-10 Prospective 44 16 36.4 NR/NR NR IgM ELISA + RT-PCR/IgM ELISA [42]
  2010 Cross-sectional 51 5 9.8 CEA/1 NR RT-PCR/RT-PCR [37]
  2010 Cross-sectional 73 4 5.5 NR/NR NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA [43]
  2010 Cross-sectional 303 68 22.4 NR/2,3 NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA [38]
  2011 Cross-sectional 21 2 9.5 NR/NR NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA [40]
  2011 Cross-sectional 68 9 13.2 CEA/1,2 NR IgM ELISA + RT-PCR/IgM ELISA + RT-PCR [41]
  2011-12 Cross-sectional 191 2 1.0 NR/NR NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA [39]
  2012 Case report NA 1 NA NR/NR NR NR/NR [44]
 Myanmar 1970 Prospective 539 36 6.7 NR/NR Ae. aegypti HI + CF/HI + CF [23]
  1971 Prospective 129 8 6.2 NR/NR Ae. aegypti HI + CF/HI + CF [23]
  1972 Prospective 244 11 4.5 NR/NR Ae. aegypti HI + CF/HI + CF [23]
  2010 Cross-sectional 60 7 11.7 CEA/NR NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA [36]
 Sri Lanka 2006 Case report NA 1 NA CEA/NR NR RT-PCR/RT-PCR [26]
  2006-07 Prospective 44 3 6.8 CEA/NR NR IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA [27]
 Thailand 1962 Prospective 150 4 2.7 Asian/NR NR HI/HI + CF [18]
  1963 Prospective 144 3 2.1 Asian/NR NR HI/HI + CF [18]
  1964 Prospective 334 12 3.6 Asian/NR NR HI/HI + CF [18]
  2009 Prospective 43 1 2.3 NR/NR NR RT-PCR/RT-PCR [35]
Eastern Mediterranean Region        
 Yemen 2012 Cross-sectional 165 14 8.5 NR/2 NR IgM ELISA + RT-PCR/IgM ELISA + RT-PCR [45]
Western Pacific Region        
 Malaysia 2006 Case report NA 2 NA CEA/1 NR RT-PCR/IgM ELISA [29]
 Singapore 2009 Case report NA 1 NA CEA/2 NR RT-PCR/RT-PCR [46]
  1. NA not applicable, NR not reported, CEA Central/East African, WA West African, HI haemagglutination inhibition, CF complex fixation, IFA immunofluorescence assay, PRNT plaque reduction neutralization test