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Table 5 Congenital abnormalities in live born and stillborn infants (n=4645) by LPV/r exposure timing

From: Maternal and foetal outcomes among 4118 women with HIV infection treated with lopinavir/ritonavir during pregnancy: analysis of population-based surveillance data from the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood in the United Kingdom and Ireland

  Overall Any first trimester exposure to LPV/r Earliest LPV/r exposure in second/third trimester
Total live births (singleton + multiple), n 4609 1116 3403
ᅟLive births with ≥1 abnormality, n (%) 134a (2.9) 32 (2.9) 97 (2.9)
ᅟᅟ95 % CI 2.4–3.4 1.9–3.8 2.3–3.4
Stillbirths, n 36 8 27
ᅟStillbirths with ≥1 abnormality, n (%) 6 (16.7) 1 (12.5) 5 (18.5)
ᅟᅟ95 % CI 3.9–29.5 2.9–34.2
Category of abnormality
ᅟCNS 8 3 5
ᅟEye, ear, face and neckb 4 0 4
ᅟCleft lip and/or palate 2 1 1
ᅟObstructive heart defects, right 2 0 2
ᅟObstructive heart defects, left 1 0 1
ᅟHeart—other defects 13 6 6
ᅟRespiratory systemc 3 1 2
ᅟLower gastrointestinal system 8 2 6
ᅟFemale genitalia 1 1 0
ᅟMale genitaliad 6 1 5
ᅟRenal and urinary systemc 13 2 10
ᅟLimb reduction/additione 31 5 25
ᅟOther musculoskeletal defects 15 3 12
ᅟSkin and skin derivativesf 8 2 5
ᅟChromosome anomaly 15 4 11
ᅟOther organ systems-specified 4 1 3
ᅟSpecified syndromes 3 1 1
ᅟUnspecified abnormality 3 0 3
  1. Abbreviations: LPV/r lopinavir/ritonavir, CI confidence interval, CNS central nervous system
  2. aIncludes 5 infants (5 live born) for whom information regarding the timing of LPV/r initiation was unavailable. None of these pregnancies were conceived on LPV/r
  3. b4 minor
  4. c1 minor
  5. d3 minor
  6. e28 minor
  7. f7 minor