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Table 1 Maternal demographic and disease characteristics, stratified by timing of LPV/r exposurea

From: Maternal and foetal outcomes among 4118 women with HIV infection treated with lopinavir/ritonavir during pregnancy: analysis of population-based surveillance data from the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood in the United Kingdom and Ireland

Variable All
Pregnancies
(N=4864)
Pregnancies With Conception on LPV/r
(n=980)
Pregnancies With Initiation of LPV/r
(n=3884)
P Value
Between Groups
  N (%) or Median (IQR)  
Age at conception, y 30.4
(26.6–34.3)
33.3
(29.8–36.6)
29.7
(26.0–33.6)
<0.001*
Ethnic group
ᅟWhite 742 (15.3) 135 (13.8) 607 (15.6) 0.07
ᅟBlack African 3742 (77.0) 781 (79.7) 2961 (76.3)
ᅟOther 377 (7.8) 64 (6.5) 313 (8.1)
ᅟMissingb 3 3
Region of birth
ᅟUnited Kingdom/Ireland 663 (13.8) 114 (11.8) 549 (14.3) 0.022*
ᅟSub-Saharan Africa 3678 (76.5) 769 (79.3) 2909 (75.8)
ᅟElsewhere 469 (9.8) 87 (9.0) 382 (9.9)
ᅟMissingb 54 10 44
Timing of maternal HIV diagnosis
ᅟPre-pregnancy 2914 (59.9) 980 (100) 1934 (49.8)
ᅟDuring pregnancy 1950 (40.1) 1950 (50.2)
ᅟᅟFirst trimester 550 (11.3) 550 (14.2)
ᅟᅟSecond trimester 970 (19.9) 970 (25.0)
ᅟᅟThird trimester 206 (4.2) 206 (5.3)
ᅟᅟTrimester unknown 224 (4.6) 224 (5.8)
HIV symptoms in pregnancy
ᅟYes 257 (5.7) 99 (11.1) 158 (4.3)
ᅟNo 4289 (94.3) 792 (88.9) 3497 (95.7)
ᅟMissingb 318 89 229
Maternal HIV risk factor
ᅟNot IDU-related 4784 (98.4) 956 (97.6) 3828 (98.6)
ᅟIDU-related 80 (1.6) 24 (2.4) 56 (1.4)
NRTI backbone
ᅟZDV + 3TC 3306 (68.0) 271 (27.7) 3035 (78.1)
ᅟFTC + TDF 499 (10.3) 247 (25.2) 252 (6.5)
ᅟABC + 3TC 301 (6.2) 156 (15.9) 145 (3.7)
ᅟOther 725 (14.9) 295 (30.1) 430 (11.1)
ᅟMissing 33 (0.7) 11 (1.1) 22 (0.6)
Baseline CD4+ T-cell count in pregnancy,c n 3593 752 2841
ᅟMissingb 1271 228 1043
ᅟMedian, cells/mm3 390 (270–540) 460 (330–600) 370 (260–520) <0.001*
Pre-LPV/r initiation CD4+ T-cell count, n N/A 2503
ᅟMedian, cells/mm3 N/A 370 (260–520)
ᅟMissingb N/A 1381
Delivery CD4+ T-cell count,d n 3712 688 3024
ᅟMedian, cells/mm3 450 (320–590) 440 (330–560) 450 (310–600)
ᅟMissingb 1152 292 860
Viral load at baseline,c n 716 3336e
ᅟMedian, copies/mL N/A 5200 (862–22,279)
ᅟ<50 copies/mL 587 (82.0) N/A
ᅟ≥50 copies/mL 129 (18.0) N/A
ᅟMissing 182 910
Viral load at delivery,d n 747 3336e
ᅟ<50 copies/mL 677 (90.6) 2302 (69.0)
ᅟ≥50–999 copies/mL 70 (9.4) 798 (23.9)
ᅟ≥1000 copies/mL 236 (7.1)
ᅟMissing 151 910
  1. Abbreviations: LPV/r lopinavir/ritonavir, IQR interquartile range, IDU injecting drug use, ZDV zidovudine, 3TC lamivudine, FTC emtricitabine, TDF tenofovir, ABC abacavir, N/A not available
  2. *Statistically significant, P < 0.05
  3. aMaternal characteristics were determined on the basis of pregnancies; therefore, some women appear more than once because of repeat pregnancies reported in the study period
  4. bExcluded from denominator
  5. cFirst reported measurements in the first or second trimester of pregnancy
  6. dMeasurements reported closest to delivery in the third trimester or within 7 days of delivery. If not available, the last measurement taken up to 28 days before and 7 days after delivery was used
  7. ePregnancy where the outcome was a live birth or stillbirth and data were available on the timing of initiation of LPV/r and delivery viral load