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Table 4 Univariate predictors associated with time to death among patients treated for tuberculosis*

From: Impact of HIV on mortality among patients treated for tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Unadjusted HR (95 % CI) P value
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Pediatric casea 0.36 (0.12–1.14) 0.082
 Female gender 0.65 (0.450.95) 0.025
 Unemployed 2.95 (2.094.18) <0.001
 Did not begin secondary level education, n = 1700 1.08 (0.71–1.65) 0.712
 Substance abuse, n = 1699b 1.72 (1.232.41) 0.002
Comorbidities
 HIV positive 5.99 (4.188.59) <0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 0.57 (0.26–1.22) 0.146
TB history and risk exposures
 Previously treated for TB 1.62 (0.90–2.93) 0.110
 Prior incarceration, n = 1695c 1.07 (0.52–2.19) 0.854
 Recent hospitalization for >15 daysc 4.13 (1.5311.2) 0.005
 Healthcare occupational exposurec,d 0.15 (0.02–1.08) 0.060
Clinical presentation, all patients
 Duration of symptoms >3 months before DST solicited, n = 1690 0.99 (0.70–1.41) 0.970
 Weight loss, n = 1698 2.99 (1.655.43) <0.001
 Able to perform ADLs 0.15 (0.100.21) <0.001
 Low BMI, n = 1693e 2.38 (1.703.35) <0.001
 Dyspnea, n = 1698 2.90 (2.044.11) <0.001
 Hemoptysis, n = 1699 0.52 (0.21–1.26) 0.147
 No CXR performed 1.59 (0.65–3.88) 0.312
 Abnormal CXR, n = 1651 0.60 (0.35–1.02) 0.061
 Cavitary disease, n = 1651 0.87 (0.61–1.24) 0.446
 Extrapulmonary TB 1.51 (0.82–2.80) 0.188
Clinical presentation, HIV positive patients only
 Receiving ART at baseline, n = 187 0.72 (0.28–1.82) 0.482
 Receiving cotrimoxazole at baseline, n = 187 0.53 (0.21–1.36) 0.188
 No CD4 performed, n = 187 1.25 (0.60–2.61) 0.550
Microbiologic data
 Baseline bacteriologically unconfirmed TB diagnosisf 2.02 (1.143.59) 0.016
 Baseline sputum AFB smear positive, n = 1669 0.87 (0.53–1.43) 0.589
 Baseline MDR-TB, n = 1211 1.10 (0.73–1.65) 0.658
 No baseline DST result 1.02 (0.70–1.51) 0.906
Treatment course
 Received second line drugs during studyg 0.84 (0.57–1.23) 0.376
 Non-adherence, n = 1689h 0.84 (0.56–1.25) 0.381
  1. ADLs activities of daily living, AFB acid-fast bacilli, ART antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CXR chest x-ray, DST drug susceptibility test, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HR hazard ratio; MDR-TB multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, TB tuberculosis
  2. *Boldface indicates P < 0.05. For covariates with full data, the model included n = 1701 (568,602 person-days, 136 deaths). For covariates with missing data, the n for the model is provided
  3. aDefined as age <15 years
  4. bDefined as current or past alcohol use or illicit drug use that interfered with family, health, or work
  5. cDuring the past 2 years
  6. dDefined as healthcare worker or student
  7. eDefined as BMI <20 kg/m2 in men, BMI <18.5 kg/m2 in women
  8. fDefined as any case with a positive baseline AFB (not paucibacillary) or with a positive baseline culture
  9. gDefined as receiving a regimen containing second-line drugs at enrollment or post enrollment
  10. hDefined as having spent >20 % of treatment regimen duration off drugs