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Table 2 Characteristics of patients treated for tuberculosis, by HIV status*

From: Impact of HIV on mortality among patients treated for tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic HIV positive HIV negative Total
(N = 187) (N = 1514) (N = 1701)
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age (years), mean ± SD 33.4 ± 10.6 33.6 ± 15.9 33.6 ± 15.4
 Female gender 49 (26.2) 551 (36.4) 600 (35.3)
 Married or lived together 64 (34.2) 554 (36.6) 618 (36.3)
 Unemployed 102 (54.6) 535 (35.3) 637 (37.5)
 Did not begin secondary level education, n = 1700 30 (16.0) 318 (21.0) 348 (20.5)
 Tobacco use, n = 1699a 59 (31.9) 382 (25.2) 441 (26.0)
 Alcohol abuse, n = 1699b 85 (46.0) 537 (35.5) 622 (36.6)
 Illicit drug abuse, n = 1699c 57 (30.7) 252 (16.7) 309 (18.2)
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 1 (0.5) 182 (12.0) 183 (10.8)
 Chronic corticosteroid therapy 0 (0) 6 (0.4) 6 (0.4)
 Other immunosuppression 0 (0) 8 (0.5) 8 (0.5)
TB history and risk exposures
 Previously treated for TB 161 (86.1) 1326 (87.6) 1487 (87.4)
 Prior incarceration, n = 1695d 17 (9.2) 106 (7.0) 123 (7.3)
 Recent hospitalization for >15 daysd 2 (1.1) 14 (0.9) 16 (0.9)
 Healthcare occupational exposured,e 1 (0.5) 84 (5.6) 85 (5.0)
Clinical presentation, all patients
 Duration of symptoms before DST solicited (months),
mean ± SD, n = 1690
2.5 ± 3.0 3.5 ± 4.9 3.4 ± 4.8
 Able to perform ADLs 149 (79.7) 1424 (94.1) 1573 (92.5)
 Weight loss, n = 1698 164 (89.1) 1202 (79.4) 1366 (80.5)
 BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD, n = 1693 19.9 ± 3.5 21.4 ± 3.6 21.2 ± 3.6
 Dyspnea, n = 1698 49 (26.3) 246 (16.3) 295 (17.4)
 Hemoptysis, n = 1699 3 (1.6) 98 (6.5) 101 (5.9)
 Chest radiography    
  Abnormal CXR, n = 1651 135 (72.2) 1375 (90.8) 1510 (88.8)
  Normal CXR, n = 1651 41 (21.9) 100 (6.6) 141 (8.3)
  No CXR performed, n = 50 11 (5.9) 39 (2.6) 50 (2.9)
 Cavitary disease, n = 1651 27 (15.3) 598 (40.5) 625 (37.9)
 Site of TB disease    
  Pulmonary only 157 (84.0) 1448 (95.6) 1605 (94.4)
  Extrapulmonary with or without pulmonary 30 (16.0) 66 (4.4) 96 (5.6)
Clinical presentation, HIV positive patients
 Receiving ART at baseline 24 (12.8) N/A N/A
 Receiving cotrimoxazole at baseline 29 (15.5)   
 No CD4 performed 147 (78.6) N/A N/A
 Baseline CD4 count (cells/μL) if performed, n = 40   N/A N/A
   < 100 13 (32.5) N/A N/A
  100–350 23 (57.5) N/A N/A
   > 350 4 (10.0) N/A N/A
Microbiologic data
 Baseline bacteriologically unconfirmed TB diagnosisf 58 (31.0) 51 (3.4) 109 (6.4)
 Baseline sputum AFB smear positive, n = 1669 86 (50.3) 1362 (90.9) 1448 (86.8)
 Baseline TB drug resistance status    
  Drug susceptible 74 (39.6) 576 (38.0) 650 (38.2)
  Mono-resistant (either H or R) 20 (10.7) 133 (8.8) 153 (9.0)
  MDR-TB 22 (11.8) 386 (25.5) 408 (24.0)
  No result 71 (38.0) 419 (27.7) 490 (28.8)
Treatment course
 Received second line drugs during studyg 36 (19.3) 711 (47.0) 747 (43.9)
 Non-adherence, n = 1689h 46 (24.6) 376 (25.0) 422 (25.0)
  1. ADLs activities of daily living, AFB acid-fast bacilli, ART antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index, CXR chest x-ray, DST drug susceptibility test, H isoniazid, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MDR-TB multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, R rifampicin, SD standard deviation, TB tuberculosis
  2. *Values are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise specified. Boldface indicates statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the HIV positive and the HIV negative group
  3. aDefined as current or past tobacco use of more than 10 packs/year
  4. bDefined as current or past alcohol use that interfered with family, health, or work
  5. cDefined as current or past illicit drug use that interfered with family, health, or work
  6. dDuring the past 2 years
  7. eDefined as healthcare worker or student
  8. fDefined as any case with a positive baseline AFB (not paucibacillary) or with a positive baseline culture
  9. gDefined as receiving a regimen containing second-line drugs at enrollment or post enrollment
  10. hDefined as having spent >20 % of treatment regimen duration off drugs