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Table 2 Typhoid fever annual incidence rate in population-based, longitudinal studies published from 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2013 (not corrected for blood culture sensitivity)

From: Revisiting typhoid fever surveillance in low and middle income countries: lessons from systematic literature review of population-based longitudinal studies

Location Year Rural/urban Duration (months) Surveillance type Inclusion criteria Population covered by surveillance sitea Population utilizing the surveillance site Eligible cases identified Consented and provide blood sample Included in final analysis Surveillance method adjusted denominatorb Total blood culture- confirmed typhoid fever cases Annual crude incidence/100,000 Surveillance method adjustedb annual incidence/100,000 Source
Africa                
Belbeis district, Sharkia, Egypt July 2001-October 2001 Rural + Urban 4 Passive sentinel sites (1 hospital + 11 fever specialists + 68 health providers + baseline census + health care utilization adjustment) ≥6mths of age; Current fever of ≥3 days 664,000 664,000 449 449 449 664,000 19 6ac 6ac [9]
Fayoum, Egypt June 2002-October 2002 Rural + Urban 5 Passive sentinel (1 hospital + 6 district hospitals + 16 infectious disease specialists + 13 rural health unit physicians + 18 primary care providers) ≥1 year age; Current fever of 38 °C for ≥2 days; OR clinically suspected typhoid fever 2,240,000 2,240,000 1815 1815 1804 766,540 90 10 29 [10]
Ashanti region, Ghana September 2007-November 2008 Rural 13 Passive (1 hospital) + health care utilization adjustment 5-15 years age; Hospitalized; every second case 9600 9600 1456 1456 1456 4800 7 67 135 [11]
Ashanti region, Ghana Sept 2007- July 2009 Rural 23 Passive (1 hospital) + health care utilization adjustment <5 years age; hospitalized; every second case 22,425 5333 1351 1351 1196 2667 17 166 333 [11, 12]
Kibera, Kenya March 2007- February 2009 Urban slum 24 Active (field clinic) + biweekly house to house visit + baseline census + health care utilization adjustment All age; Current fever of 38 °C; OR respiratory illnessd 28,000 54,535e 7852 1531 1531 16,423e 135 248a 822a [13]
Lwak, Kenya October 2006- September 2009 Rural 36 Active (field clinic) + biweekly house to house visit + baseline census + health care utilization adjustment All age; Current fever of 38 °C; OR respiratory illnessd OR hospitalization 25,000 77,017e 11,258 4185 4185 4944e 22 29 445a [13]
Pemba, Zanzibar Tanzania January 2010- December 2010 Rural 12 Passive (three hospital + health care utilization adjustment) ≥2mts age; Current fever of 37.5.C 500,600 53,064 3105 2209 2209 38,182 210 4 55a [14]
S Asia                
New Delhi, India November 1995-October 1996 Urban slum 12 Active (twice weekly house visit + study clinic + baseline census) <40 years;Current fever of 38 °C for <5 years; Current fever of 38.C for ≥ 3 days for >5 years 7159 6,454e 1454 1217 1217 5402 e 63 880 1166 [17]
Kolkata, India November 2003-October 2004 Urban slum 12 Active (monthly household visit + 2 government hospitals + 5 study clinics + baseline census) All age; Febrile ≥ 3 days 56,946 56,946 4378 4342 4342 56,478 122 214 216 [15]
Dhaka, Bangladesh December 2000 -October2001 Urban slum 10 Active (weekly house visit + field clinic + baseline census) All age; Current fever of ≥38 °C for <5 years; Current fever of ≥38.C for ≥ 3 days for >5 years NA 12,407e 889 888 888 12,393e 49 474 395 [18]
Dhaka, Bangladesh January2003-Januay 2004 Urban slum 12 Active (weekly household visits + field clinic + baseline census) All age; Current fever of ≥38 °C for <5 years; Current fever of ≥38.C for ≥ 3 days for >5 years 26,586 19,710e 1333 961 961 14,210e 40 150 282 [30]
Karachi, Pakistan June 1999-December 2001 Urban 12 Active (fortnightly households visits + two study clinics + baseline census) <16 years of age; Febrile ≥ 3 days 41,845 41,845 7736 7415 7415 40,109 189 452 471 [19]
Karachi, Pakistan August 2002-July 2004 Urban slum 30 Active (weekly household visit + three study clinics + motivation to private providers + baseline census) 2 to 15 years old; Febrile ≥ 3 days 11,668 29,170e 4198 1248 1248 8672 e 49 168 565 [15]
Peri-urban Karachi, Pakistan February 2007-May 2008 Semi-urban + Rural 15 Active (weekly household visit + local community health center + baseline census <5 years of age; Current fever of 38 °C OR pneumococcal clinical syndromef 5570 3,949e 3372 1165 1165 1,364e 16 230 1173 [21]
SE & Eastern Asia                
Hechi, Guangxi, China August 2001-July 2002 Rural + Urban 12 Passive (5 hospitals + 23 government clinics + 99 private clinics + baseline census) 5 to 60 years of age; Febrile ≥ 3 days 97,928 97,928 1215 1215 1215 97,928 15 15 15 [15]
Jakarta, Indonesia August 2002-July 2003 Urban slum 24 Passive (8 government public health centers + 2 government hospitals + baseline census) All age; Febrile ≥ 3 days 160,261 160,261 6708 5775 5775 137,971 221 69 80 [15, 23]
Dong Thap Vietnam December 1995-December 1996 Rural 12 Passive (2 health centers + 1 hospital + motivation to private providers + baseline census) All age; Current fever of ≥38.C for ≥ 3 days 28,329 28,329 973 667 658 19,158 56 198 292 [24]
Hue, Vietnam June 2002-June 2003 Urban 13 Passive (4 hospitals + 32 government clinics + 55 private clinics + baseline census) 5 to 18 years of age; Febrile > 3 days 84,455 84,455 3678 3611 3611 82,917 18 20 20 [15]
Summary November 1995 to December 2010 Urban and Rural 281 Variable Variable 4,010,372 NA 63,220 41,500 41,325 NA 1149 NA NA  
  1. NA Not available
  2. aAs reported by authors
  3. bDenominator was corrected for dropout of eligible cases at various level of surveillance starting from health care utilization, referral to health facility, failure to collect blood sample, missing data
  4. cNo correction factor was available
  5. dRespiratory illness was defined for children <5 years old as: cough OR difficulty breathing AND one of the following: convulsions, unable to drink fluids or unable to breastfeed, lethargic, chest in drawing, vomiting everything, stridor, oxygen saturation <90 %; and for persons ≥5 years old as cough OR difficulty breathing OR chest pain AND one of the following: temperature ≥38.0 °C and oxygen saturation <90 %
  6. eEstimated in person years
  7. fPneumococcal clinical syndrome is defined by PneumoADIP investigator group; available at: Case definition for pneumococcal syndrome and other severe bacterial infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2009:48(suppl 2): S197-S202