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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria for systematic literature review

From: Revisiting typhoid fever surveillance in low and middle income countries: lessons from systematic literature review of population-based longitudinal studies

Inclusion Criteria
• Published from 1st January, 1990 to 31st December 2013
• Listed in Pubmed OR Embase OR WHO OR PAHO data base
• Conducted in low and middle income countries based on World Bank definition [8]
• Blood culture was used for typhoid fever confirmation
• Diagnostic health facility covers clearly defined population OR a health care utilization survey provides a population denominator
• Study conducted in human subjects
• Study published in English
Exclusion Criteria
• Surveillance that did not deploy blood culture for typhoid fever confirmation
• Results from intervention arm of clinical trials
• Typhoid fever outbreak reports
• Government reports based on selected sentinel health facilities
• Studies estimating incidence based on mathematical models
• Hospital based surveillance where denominator is not defined or health care utilization survey was not conducted