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Table 2 Association between demographic and clinical characteristics and pneumococcal carriage in children with asthma

From: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation in children and adolescents with asthma: impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and evaluation of potential effect of thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

  Carriers (n = 192) Non-carriers (n = 231) Crude OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)a
  n (%) n (%)   
Age
 <10 93 (48.4) 83 (35.9) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 10–14 90 (46.9) 117 (50.6) 0.69 (0.46–1.03) 0.69 (0.46–1.04)
 ≥15 9 (4.7) 31 (13.4) 0.26 (0.12–0.58) 0.25 (0.11–0.56)
Gender
 Male 136 (70.8) 164 (71.0) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Female 56 (29.2) 67 (29.0) 1.01 (0.66–1.54) 0.94 (0.61–1.45)
Siblingsb
 No 46 (24.2) 54 (23.5) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 144 (75.8) 176 (76.5) 0.96 (0.61–1.51) 0.96 (0.61–1.53)
Parental smoking habit
 Both non-smokers 119 (62.0) 157 (68.0) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 At least one smoker 73 (38.0) 74 (32.0) 1.30 (0.87–1.95) 1.36 (0.90–2.07)
Asthma type
 Intermittent 40 (20.8) 34 (14.7) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Mild, persistent 64 (33.3) 80 (34.6) 0.68 (0.39–1.19) 0.66 (0.37–1.17)
 Moderate, persistent 79 (41.1) 103 (44.6) 0.65 (0.38–1.12) 0.67 (0.38–1.18)
 Severe, persistent 9 (4.7) 14 (6.1) 0.55 (0.21–1.42) 0.59 (0.22–1.57)
Systemic corticesteroid therapy (previous 3 mos)b
 No 158 (84.0) 194 (85.8) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 30 (16.0) 32 (14.2) 1.15 (0.67–1.98) 1.03 (0.59–1.81)
Antibiotic therapy (previous 3 months)b
 No 171 (90.5) 184 (81.8) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 18 (9.5) 41 (18.2) 0.47 (0.26–0.85) 0.41 (0.22–0.76)
Respiratory relapses (previous 3 months)b
 No 144 (76.2) 159 (70.3) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 45 (23.8) 67 (29.7) 0.74 (0.48–1.15) 0.70 (0.45–1.10)
Asthma under controlb
 No 33 (17.5) 54 (23.9) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 156 (82.5) 172 (76.1) 1.48 (0.91–2.41) 1.41 (0.86–2.31)
  1. aMultivariate model adjusted for age, gender, number of siblings, and parental smoking
  2. bSome missing values. 95 % CI: 95 % confidence interval; OR: odds ratio