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Table 1 Eligibility Criteria

From: A double blind community-based randomized trial of amoxicillin versus placebo for fast breathing pneumonia in children aged 2-59 months in Karachi, Pakistan (RETAPP)

Inclusion Exclusion
Children 2–59 months old who are visiting PHC
History of cough or difficult breathing less than 14 daysa (observed or reported)
Respiratory rate ≥ 50 breaths per minute in children 2 to <12 months OR respiratory rate ≥ 40 breaths per minute in children ≥12 monthsb
Providing written informed consent
Antibiotics taken in last 48 h
Lower chest wall in-drawing
Any general danger sign as defined by WHO (Stridor when calm, hypoxia defined as SaO 2 < 90 % in air, inability to feed, persistent vomiting, convulsions or reduced conscious level)
Bulging fontanel
Pedal edema
Known asthmatics, tuberculosis or other severe illness
History of hospitalization in last two weeks
Congenital heart disease
Any surgical condition requiring hospitalization
Out of catchment area
Enrolled in another trial or previously enrolled in study
  1. aChildren, who present with wheeze along with cough or difficulty in breathing, are given trial of nebulization with bronchodilator up to three times 15–20 min apart. These children are then re-assessed for respiratory rate after each nebulization therapy. If respiratory rate remains persistently above cut-off, irrespective of wheeze, child is considered for inclusion. For persistent wheezers, oral bronchodilator is given for three days
  2. bOn two consecutive readings by community health worker and physicians