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Table 2 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for primary-care and hospital-care physicians

From: Physicians’ attitudes and knowledge concerning antibiotic prescription and resistance: questionnaire development and reliability

  Primary-care physicians Hospital-care physicians
Section 2 – Antibiotics and resistance
Statement ICC (95 % CI) ICC (95 % CI)
S 1: Antibiotic resistance is an important Public Health problem in our setting (Ignorance). 0.873 (0.733; 0.940)*** 0.711 (0.394; 0.863)***
S 2: In a primary-care context, one should wait for the microbiology results before treating an infectious disease (Ignorance). 0.530 (0.013; 0.776)* 0.751 (0.477; 0.882)***
S 3: Rapid and effective diagnostic techniques are required for diagnosis of infectious diseases (Responsibility of others – Health care System). 0.542 (0.038; 0.782)* 0.590 (0.138; 0.805)**
S 4: The prescription of an antibiotic to a patient does not influence the possible appearance of resistance (Ignorance). 0.432 (−0.193; 0.730) 0.906 (0.801; 0.955)***
S 5: I am convinced that new antibiotics will be developed to solve the problem of resistance (Responsibility of others – Investigation) 0.548 (0.050; 0.785)* 0.922 (0.836; 0.963)***
S 6: The use of antibiotics on animals is an important cause of the appearance of new resistance to pathogenic agents in humans (Responsibility of others) 0.858 (0.703; 0.933)*** 0.509 (−0.031; 0.766)*
S 7: In case of doubt, it is preferable to use a wide-spectrum antibiotic to ensure that the patient is cured of an infection (Fear). 0.777 (0.532; 0.894)*** 0.926 (0.845; 0.965)***
S 8: I frequently prescribe an antibiotic in situations in which it is impossible for me to conduct a systematic follow-up of the patient (Fear). 0.666 (0.297; 0.841)** 0.835 (0.653; 0.922)***
S 9: In situations of doubt as to whether a disease might be of bacterial aetiology, it is preferable to prescribe an antibiotic (Fear). 0.402 (−0.256; 0.715) 0.859 (0.704; 0.933)***
S 10: I frequently prescribe antibiotics because patients insist on it (Complacency). 0.864 (0.715; 0.935)*** 0.429 (−0.200; 0.728)
S 11: I sometimes prescribe antibiotics so that patients continue to trust me (Complacency). 0.857 (0.700; 0.932)*** 0.855 (0.695; 0.931)***
S 12: I sometimes prescribe antibiotics, even when I know that they are not indicated because I do not have the time to explain to the patient the reason why they are not called for (Indifference). 0.860 (0.705; 0.923)*** 0.946 (0.887; 0.974)***
S 13: If a patient feels that he/she needs antibiotics, he/she will manage to obtain them at the pharmacy without a prescription, even when they have not been prescribed (Responsibility of others – Other Professionals). 0.822 (0.625; 0.915)*** 0.753 (0.481; 0.882)***
S 14: Two of the main causes of the appearance of antibiotic resistance are patient self-medication and antibiotic misuse (Responsibility of others – Patients). 0.767 (0.510; 0.889)*** 0.468 (−0.117; 0.747)
S 15: Dispensing antibiotics without a prescription should be more closely controlled (Responsibility of others – Health care System). 0.683 (0.325; 0.851)** 0.692 (0.353; 0.853)**
S 16: In a primary-care context, amoxicillin is useful for treating most respiratory infections (Ignorance). 0.470 (−0.074; 0.748) 0.745 (0.465; 0.879)***
S 17: The phenomenon of resistance to antibiotics is mainly a problem in hospital settings (Responsibility of others – Other Professionals). 0.690 (0.348. 0.852)** 0.706 (0.382; 0.860)**
Section 3 – In the treatment of respiratory tract infections, how would you rate the usefulness of each of these sources of knowledge?
Statement ICC (95 % CI) ICC (95 % CI)
S 1’: Clinical practice guidelines. 0.846 (0.676; 0.927)*** 0.562 (0.079; 0.791)*
S 2’: Documentation furnished by the Pharmaceutical Industry. 0.579 (0.116; 0.800)* 0.746 (0.467; 0.879)***
S 3’: Courses held by the Pharmaceutical Industry. 0.519 (−0.011; 0.771)* 0.734 (0.441; 0.873)***
S 4’: Information furnished by Medical Information Officers. 0.851 (0.687; 0.929)*** 0.753 (0.481; 0.883)***
S 5’: Previous clinical experience. 0.715 (0.401; 0.864)*** 0.714 (0.399; 0.864)**
S 6’: Continuing Education Courses. 0.708 (0.387; 0.861)*** 0.797 (0.574; 0.904)***
S 7’: Others, e.g., contribution of specialists (microbiologists, infectious disease specialists, etc.). 0.948 (0.890; 0.975)*** 0.595 (0.148; 0.807)**
S 8’: Contribution of peers (of the same specialisation). 0.764 (0.505; 0.888)*** 0.655 (0.275; 0.836)**
S 9’: Data collected via the Internet. 0.723 (0.419; 0.868)** 0.762 (0.500; 0.887)***
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001