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Table 3 Influenza symptoms in the literature and professional websites

From: Development of the Flu-PRO: a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument to evaluate symptoms of influenza

System symptom Number of published papers (n = 32) or websitesa (n = 3) with this symptom (N = 35)
Upper respiratory
Nasal congestion (e.g., obstruction, stuffiness) 14 (40.0 %)
Rhinorrhea (runny nose) 13 (37.1 %)
Sneezing 4 (11.4 %)
Sore throat 26 (74.3 %)
Hoarseness 3 (8.6 %)
Ear ache and/or pressure 4 (11.4 %)
Conjunctivitis 1 (2.9 %)
Sinus pain 1 (2.9 %)
Coryza 2 (5.7 %)
Nasal symptoms 2 (5.7 %)
Lower respiratory
Cough 29 (82.9 %)
Dyspnea/difficulty breathing 4 (11.4 %)
Chest congestion 1 (2.9 %)
Chest discomfort 2 (5.7 %)
Systemic
Headache 22 (62.9 %)
Muscle/joint aches and pains 25 (71.4 %)
Fatigue (weakness, tiredness, low energy) 16 (45.7 %)
Loss of or poor appetite 6 (17.1 %)
Vomiting 7 (20 %)
Nausea 3 (8.6 %)
Diarrhea 4 (11.4 %)
Digestive symptoms 2 (5.7 %)
Feverishness, chills, rigors, sweats 16 (45.7 %)
Dizziness 2 (5.7 %)
Malaise 3 (8.6 %)
Fatigue/weakness/tiredness/low energy 15 (42.9 %)
Signs
Fever 32 (91.4 %)
  1. aWebsites: World Health Organization (WHO); National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID); Centers for Disease Control (CDC)