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Table 1 Possible risk factors for invasive fungal diseases (IFD, n = 28) and invasive aspergillosis (n = 18)

From: Incidence and characteristics of invasive fungal diseases in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a retrospective cohort study

  Univariate analysis for IFDs Univariate analysis for Aspergillosis
Risk factors No. of patientsa IFD OR 95 % CI p-value No. of patientsa Aspergillus OR 95 % CI p-value
n % n %
Gender             
 male 130 10 7.7     126 6 4.8    
 female 112 18 16.1 2.3 1.01–5.2 0.05 106 12 11.3 2.6 0.9–7.1 0.07
Underlying disease             
 leukemia 189 22 11.6 1.0 0.4–2.7 0.9 179 12 6.7 0.6 0.2–1.6 0.3
 lymphoma 27 5 18.5 1.9 0.7–5.5 0.2 27 5 18.5 3.4 1.1–10.3 0.03
 others 26 1 3.8 - - - 26 1 3.8 - - -
Graft type             
 PBSC 211 25 11.8 1.3 0.4–4.4 0.7 201 15 7.5 0.8 0.2–2.8 0.7
 cord blood 22 3 13.6 1.2 0.3–4.5 0.8 22 3 13.6 2.1 0.5–7.7 0.3
 bone marrow 9 0 0 - - - 9 0 0 - - -
Donor type             
 unrelated 177 21 11.9     172 16 9    
 related 65 7 10.8 0.9 0.4–2.2 0.8 60 2 3 0.3 0.1–1.5 0.2
HLA-matched donor             
 matched 194 22 11.3     184 12 6.2    
 mismatched 48 6 12.5 1.1 0.4–2.9 0.8 48 6 12.5 2.1 0.7–5.8 0.2
Conditioning regimen             
 reduced-intensity 143 17 11.9     137 11 8    
 myeloablative 99 11 11.1 0.9 0.4–2.1 0.9 95 7 7.4 0.9 0.3–2.4 0.9
EBMT score             
 EBMT ≤ 2 69 13 18.8     64 8 12.5    
 EBMT > 2 173 15 8.7 0.4 0.2–0.9 0.03 168 10 6 0.4 0.2–1.2 0.1
acute GvHD             
 no GvHD or I-II° 167 18 10.8     158 9 5.7    
 severe GvHD 75 10 13.3 1.3 0.6–2.9 0.6 74 9 12.2 2.3 0.9–6 0.09
chronic GvHD             
 no GvHD or I-II° 188 22 11.7     181 15 8.3    
 severe GvHD 54 6 11.1 0.9 0.4–2.5 0.9 51 3 5.9 0.7 0.2–2.5 0.6
Intensified GvHD therapyb             
 no 215 19 8.8     206 10 4.9    
 yes 27 9 33.3 5.2 2–13.1 0.001 26 8 30.8 8.7 3.1–24.8 <0.001
CMV reactivation             
 no 154 15 9.7     147 8 5.4    
 yes 88 13 14.8 1.6 0.7–3.6 0.2 85 10 11.8 2.3 0.9–6.1 0.09
TMA             
 no 225 22 9.8     215 12 5.6    
 yes 17 6 35.3 5 1.7–14.9 0.004 17 6 35.3 9.2 2.9–29.2 <0.001
St.p. IFD             
 no 213 25 11.7     204 16 7.8    
 yes 29 3 10.3 0.9 0.3–3.1 0.8 28 2 7.1 0.9 0.2–4.2 0.9
Antifungal prophylaxisc             
 no 160 24 15     152 16 10    
 yes 82 4 4.9 0.3 0.1–0.9 0.03 80 2 2.5 0.2 0.1–0.97 0.05
  1. anumber of patients: n = 242 for all IFDs and n = 232 for aspergillosis excluding all other IFDs
  2. bIntensified GvHD therapy: high-dose glucocorticoid (≥1 mg/kg body weight) and either etanercept or basiliximab
  3. cAntifungal prophylaxis: systemic prophylaxis during aplasia and during post-engraftment
  4. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, PBSC peripheral blood stem cells, HLA human leukocyte antigen, EBMT European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, GvHD graft-versus-host disease, CMV cytomegalovirus, TMA transplant-associated microangiopathy