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Table 7 Summary of key variables from studies of PICU-associated influenza in Germany, 2005–2013. Data were collected in Germany during the pre-pandemic period 2005/06–2007/08 [18], in Germany during the pandemic season 2009/10 [19], and in Bavaria (Southern Germany) during the post-pandemic period 2010/11–2012/13 (this study)

From: Continued high incidence of children with severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 admitted to paediatric intensive care units in Germany during the first three post-pandemic influenza seasons, 2010/11–2012/13

Key variables of PICU patients Pre-pandemic (2005/06–2007/08) Pandemic (2009/10) Post-pandemic (2010/11–2012/13) Pre-pandemic vs. post-pandemicb
N = 20 N = 89a N = 47 p-value
Male sex; n (%) 12 (60) 56 (60) 28 (60) 1.000
Age at ICU admission, in years (median, IQR) 7.5 (0.5–12.75) 4.5 (1.3–9.3) 4.8 (1.6–11.0) 0.727
Duration of ICU stay, in days (median, IQR) 19 (12–38) 8 (3–17) 3 (1–11) 0.006
Chronic underlying conditions; n (%) 11 (55) 63 (74) 36 (77) 0.089
Complications/diagnoses     
 Influenza-associated pneumonia; n (%) 12 (60) 66 (74) 29 (62) 1.000
 Bronchitis/bronchiolitis; n (%) 6 (30) 11 (12) 15 (32) 1.000
 Secondary bacterial pneumonia; n (%) 5 (25) 15 (17) 12 (26) 1.000
 ARDS; n (%) 5 (25) 22 (25) 10 (21) 0.756
 Sepsis; n (%) 3 (15) 5 (6) 6 (13) 1.000
 Encephalitis/encephalopathy; n (%) 5 (25) 6 (7) 1 (2) 0.008
Co-infections; n (%) 13 (65) n.a. 16 (34) 0.030
Oseltamivir treatment; n (%) 10 (50) 51 (61) 9 (19) 0.017
Mechanical ventilation; n (%) 10 (50) 56 (65) 22 (47) 1.000
Death; n (%) 2 (10) 11 (12) 5 (11) 1.000
Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09; n (%) 0 (0) 89 (100) 32 (68) <0.001
  1. a89 cases with PICU treatment; proportions may refer to slightly lower patient numbers, see Altmann et al. 2011 [19]
  2. bKey data from this study were pooled with data from Streng et al. 2011 [18] and compared using Fisher’s Exact test or Mann–Whitney U-test, respectively