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Table 2 Subgroup analyses of pooled ciprofloxacin resistance in community setting

From: Ciprofloxacin resistance in community- and hospital-acquired Escherichia coli urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Subgroup Community Setting N = 51 P value*
Pooled resistance
Risk of bias Low and unclear n = 28 studies 0.221 <0.0001
High n = 23 studies 0.337
Study durationa ≤12 months
n = 25 studies
0.323 <0.0001
>12 months
n = 24 studies
0.219
Economy Developed
n = 16 studies
0.141 <0.0001
Developing
n = 35 studies
0.345
Region Africa, Asia and Middle East
n = 29 studies
0.361 <0.0001
Europe, North and South America
n = 22 studies
0.174
Age groupa Adults and children b
n = 24 studies
0.265 <0.0001
Adults only
n = 19 studies
0.302
UTI symptoms Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients n = 11 studies 0.185 <0.0001
Symptomatic patients only n = 40 studies 0.295
  1. n = number of studies reporting on community acquired UTI
  2. *Comparing pooled resistance for difference in subgroup in community setting
  3. aStudies with missing information on this sub-analysis were not included
  4. bStudies reporting resistance in adults and children or children only