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Table 1 Description of studies included in meta-analysis

From: Ciprofloxacin resistance in community- and hospital-acquired Escherichia coli urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Study author Country Designa Setting Risk of bias Study durationb (months) Number of positive E. coli UTI samplesc Number of ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli Proportion resistant (95 % CI) Standard error Weightd (%)
Ahmad, 2012 India Cross sectional Community Unclear 24 318 48 0.15 (0.11, 0.19) 0.02 2.09
Akoachere et al., 2012 Cameroon Cross sectional Community Low 12 43 11 0.26 (0.13, 0.39) 0.07 1.61
Akram et al., 2007 India Cross sectional Community High 12 61 42 0.69 (0.57, 0.80) 0.06 1.70
AlSweih et al., 2005 Kuwait Cross sectional Community High 12 1535 81 0.05 (0.04, 0.06) 0.01 2.15
Al-Tawfiq et al., 2009 Saudi Arabia Cohort Community High 12 2281 592 0.26 (0.24, 0.28) 0.01 2.14
Ansbach et al., 2013 USA Cross sectional Community High 7 98 2 0.02 (−0.01, 0.05) 0.01 2.12
Arabi et al., 2013 Iran Cross sectional Community Low 33 103 23 0.22 (0.14, 0.30) 0.04 1.91
Araujo et al., 2011 Brazil Cross sectional Community Unclear 24 391 36 0.09 (0.06, 0.12) 0.01 2.12
Arslan et al., 2005 Turkey Cross sectional Community Low 5 514 135 0.26 (0.22, 0.30) 0.02 2.09
Astal, 2005 Palestine Cross sectional Community High 6 252 30 0.12 (0.08, 0.16) 0.02 2.09
Azap et al., 2010 Turkey Cohort Community Unclear 12 464 139 0.30 (0.26, 0.34) 0.02 2.08
Bahadin et al., 2011 Singapore Cross sectional Community Unclear 12 90 22 0.24 (0.16, 0.33) 0.05 1.86
Biswas et al., 2006 India Cross sectional Community High 36 354 124 0.35 (0.30, 0.40) 0.03 2.05
Bouchillon et al., 2013 USA Cross sectional Community High 24 723 234 0.32 (0.29, 0.36) 0.02 2.10
Bouchillon et al., 2013 USA Cross sectional Hospital High 24 253 103 0.41 (0.35, 0.47) 0.03 11.83
Dash et al., 2013 India Cross sectional Community Low 30 397 212 0.53 (0.48, 0.58) 0.03 2.05
Dimitrov et al., 2004 Kuwait Cross sectional Community High 84 780 92 0.12 (0.10, 0.14) 0.01 2.13
Farshad et al., 2011 Iran Cross sectional Community Low 12 90 8 0.09 (0.03, 0.15) 0.03 2.01
Ghadiri et al., 2012 Iran Cross sectional Hospital High 24 200 80 0.40 (0.33, 0.47) 0.03 9.41
Gobernado et al., 2007 Spain Cross sectional Community Low 12 2292 418 0.18 (0.17, 0.20) 0.01 2.14
Ho et al., 2010 Hong Kong Cross sectional Community Low 24 271 35 0.13 (0.09, 0.17) 0.02 2.09
Hoban et al., 2011 Multiple countries Cross sectional Hospital High 24 1643 624 0.38 (0.36, 0.40) 0.01 78.76
Ismaili et al., 2011 Belgium Cohort Community High 24 189 5 0.03 (0.00, 0.05) 0.01 2.13
Kashef et al., 2010 Iran Cross sectional Community High 30 578 180 0.31 (0.27, 0.35) 0.02 2.09
Kiffer et al., 2007 Brazil Cross sectional Community Unclear 48 22679 2699 0.12 (0.11, 0.12) 0.002 2.15
Killgore et al., 2004 USA Case–control Community Low 12 120 40 0.33 (0.25, 0.42) 0.04 1.89
Kimando et al., 2010 Kenya Cross sectional Community Unclear 6 92 6 0.07 (0.01, 0.12) 0.03 2.05
Kothari et al., 2008 India Cross sectional Community High 6 361 260 0.72 (0.67, 0.77) 0.02 2.06
Kurutepe et al., 2005 Turkey NC Community High 72 880 174 0.20 (0.17, 0.22) 0.01 2.12
Lau et al., 2004 Taiwan Cross sectional Community Unclear 13 80 14 0.17 (0.09, 0.26) 0.04 1.89
Ljuca et al., 2010 Bosnia & Herzegovina Cross sectional Community High 36 43 4 0.09 (0.01, 0.18) 0.04 1.87
Longhi et al., 2012 Italy NC Community Low 6 154 36 0.23 (0.17, 0.30) 0.03 1.98
Martinez et al., 2012 Colombia Cross sectional Community High 2 102 39 0.38 (0.29, 0.48) 0.05 1.83
Miragliotta et al., 2008 Italy Cohort Community Low 60 2589 422 0.16 (0.15, 0.18) 0.01 2.14
Molina-Lopez et al., 2011 México Cross sectional Community High 48 119 65 0.55 (0.46, 0.64) 0.05 1.86
Moreira et al., 2006 Brazil Cross sectional Community Unclear 15 544 65 0.12 (0.09, 0.15) 0.01 2.12
Murugan et al., 2012 India Cohort Community High 12 204 144 0.71 (0.64, 0.77) 0.03 2.00
Muvunyi et al., 2011 Rwanda Cross sectional Community Low 6 72 23 0.32 (0.21, 0.43) 0.05 1.75
Mwaka et al., 2011 Uganda Cross sectional Community High NS 27 9 0.33 (0.16, 0.51) 0.09 1.32
Ni Chulain et al., 2005 Ireland Cross sectional Community High 5 723 18 0.02 (0.01, 0.04) 0.01 2.15
Olson et al., 2012 USA Cross sectional Community Unclear 16 95 4 0.04 (0.00, 0.08) 0.02 2.08
Otajevwo, 2013 Nigeria Cross sectional Community High 6 5 4 0.80 (0.45, 1.15) 0.18 0.63
Prakash et al., 2013 India Cross sectional Community Low NS 23 16 0.70 (0.51, 0.88) 0.10 1.26
Randrianirina et al., 2007 Madagascar Cross sectional Community Low 28 607 100 0.16 (0.14, 0.19) 0.02 2.12
Rani et al., 2011 India Cross sectional Community Unclear 6 208 151 0.73 (0.67, 0.79) 0.03 2.01
Shaifali et al., 2012 India Cross sectional Community Unclear 12 46 28 0.61 (0.47, 0.75) 0.07 1.54
Shariff et al., 2013 India Cross sectional Community High 18 491 160 0.33 (0.28, 0.37) 0.02 2.08
Sire et al., 2007 Senegal Cross sectional Community Low 33 1010 157 0.16 (0.13, 0.18) 0.01 2.13
Sood et al., 2012 India NC Community High 30 214 160 0.75 (0.69, 0.81) 0.03 2.02
Stratchounski et al., 2006 Russia NC Community Low 48 423 18 0.04 (0.02, 0.06) 0.01 2.14
Vellinga et al., 2012 Ireland Case–control Community Low 9 633 78 0.12 (0.10, 0.15) 0.01 2.12
Wang et al., 2014 China Cross sectional Community High 8 129 91 0.71 (0.63, 0.78) 0.04 1.92
Yildirim et al., 2010 Turkey Cross sectional Community Unclear 24 450 85 0.19 (0.15, 0.23) 0.02 2.10
Yolbas et al., 2013 Turkey Cross sectional Community High 12 113 24 0.21 (0.14, 0.29) 0.04 1.93
  1. aNon-classifiable design
  2. bNot stated
  3. cStudy denominator
  4. dWeights are from random effects analysis using DerSimonian-Laird model