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Table 2 Overview of studies that include anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) nucleic acid amplification testing in women by routine systematic testing or selective testing on indication of receptive anal sex (RAI) or otherwise

From: What is needed to guide testing for anorectal and pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in women and men? Evidence and opinion

  Setting Population Tested N Anorectal CT % (n) Had RAI % (n) Not had RAI % (n) Anorectal CT In women with RAI % (n) Anorectal CT In women without RAI % (n) Genital CT % (n) Genital and/or anorectal CT Single anorectal CT in genital and/or anorectal positives Single anorectal CT in anorectal positives
  Routine systematic testing           
van Liere et al. [10] STI clinic, South Limburg, Netherlands ’12–‘13 All 654 8.4 % (55/654) 31.0 % @6 (203/654) 69.0 % @6 (451/654) 7.9 % (16/203) 8.6 % (39/451) 11.2 % (73/654) 11.6 % (76/654) 3.9 % (3/76) 5.4 % (3/55)
Van Liere et al. [11] STI clinic, South Limburg, Netherlands ’10–‘12 Swingers 461 6.7 % (31/461) 29.5 % @6 (136/461) 70.5 % @6 (325/461) 3.5 % (16/136) 4.6 % (15/325) 6.3 % (29/461) 7.8 % (36/461) 19.4 % (7/36) 22.6 % (7/31)
Peters et al. [12] Primary health care facilities South Africa ’11–‘12 All 603 7.1 % (43/603) 4.3 % @6 (26/603) 95.7 % @6 (577/603) 3.8 % (1/26) 7.3 % (42/577) 16.0 % (96/603) 17.7 % (107/603) 10.3 % (11/107) 25.6 % (11/43)
Ostergaard et al. [27] STI clinic, Denmark ’95–‘96 All 196 5.6 % (11/196) 43.9 % @e (86/196) 56.1 % @e (110/196) 4.7 % (4/86) 6.4 % (7/110) 14.5 % (25/173) 15.6 % (27/173) 7.4 % (2/27) 18.2 % (2/11)
  Testing on indication of RAI          
Trebach et al. [28] 2 public health STI clinics, Baltimore, USA ’11–‘13 Had RAI, sharing toys 602 8.6 % (52/602) 100 % @3 0% 8.6 % (52/602) N/A 9.4 % (50/532) 11.8 % (63/532) 25.4 % (13/63) 26.0 % (13/50)
Bachmann et al. [24] STI clinics, hospital-based HIV clinics, USA ’03–‘07 Had RAI, STD contact 99 27.3 % (27/99) 40.4 % @2 (40/99) 59.6 % @2 (59/99) 17.5b % (7/40) 33.9 % (20/59) 23.2 % (23/99) 30.3 % (30/99) 23.3 % (7/30) 25.9 % (7/27)
Van der Helm et al. [25] STI clinics, Amsterdam, South Limburg, Netherlands, ’06–‘07 Had RAI 901 9.3 % (84/901) 100 % @6 0 % 9.3 % (84/901) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Sethupathi et al. [19] STI clinic Singleton hospital, UK ’06–‘08 Had RAI, STD contact, symptoms, assault 160 12.5 % (20/160) 51.2 % @u (82/160) 48.8 % @u (78/160) 12.2 % (10/82) 12.8 % (10/78) 14.1 % (22/156) 14.7 % (23/156) 4.3 % (1/23) 5.0 % (1/20)
Koedijk et al. [18] STI clinics Netherlands ’06–‘10 Had RAI, symptoms, prostitution 18,238 9.3 % (1695/18,238) N/A N/A N/A N/A 9.4 % (1709/18,238) 11.7 % (2139/18,238) 20.1 % (430/2139) 25.4 % (430/1695)
Hunte et al. [16] STI clinic Miami USA ‘07 Had RAI 97 17.5 % (17/97) 100 % @3 0 % 17.5 % (17/97) N/A 16.5 % (16/97) 17.5 % (17/97) 5.9 % (1/17) 5.9 % (1/17)
Peters et al. [22] STI clinic, The Hague, Netherlands,’07–‘08 Had RAI 850 8.8 % (75/850) 100 % @6 0 % 8.8 % (75/850) N/A 8.9 % (76/850) 10.8 % (92/850) 20.7 % (16/92) 21.3 % (16/75)
Javanbakt et al. [17] STI clinics USA ’08–‘10 Had RAI 1203 14.6 % (171/1203) 100 % @3 0 % 14.6 % (171/1203) N/A 12.0 % (144/1203) 16.0 % (193/1203) 25.4 % (49/193) 28.7 % (49/171)
Shaw et al. [23] STI clinic UK, before ‘13 Had RAI 312 7.1 % (22/312) 100 % @u 0 % 7.1 % (22/312) N/A 6.7 % (194/3043) N/A N/A 22.7 % (5/22)
Cosentino et al. [29] STI clinic Health department; HIV clinic, Pittsburgh, USA ’09–‘10 Had RAI 272 7.7 % (21/272) 100 % @e 0 % 7.7 % (21/272) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Garner et al. [15] Manchester Centre for Sexual Health, UK ‘10 Had RAI 91 6.6 % (6/91) 100 % @u 0 % 6.6 % (6/91) N/A N/A 9.4 % (59/631) N/A 16.7 % (1/6)
Bazan et al. [13] Student health clinic Seattle, before ‘93 Had RAI 341 13.5 % (46/341) 100 % @12 0 % 13.5 % (46/341) N/A N/A 14.7 % (49/334) 12.2 % (6/49) 13.6 % (6/44)
  Testing on indication of genital CT           
Ding et al. [26] STI clinic Plymouth, UK ’12–‘13 Had genital CT 97 77.3 % (75/97) 25.8 % @u (25/97) 74.2 % @u (72/97) 80.0 % (20/25) 76.4 % (55/72) 100 % 100 % N/A N/A
Musil et al. [30] Canberra Sexual Health Centre, Australia ’13–’14 Had genital CT, contact, symptoms 56 57.1 % (32/56) 33.9 % @6 (19/56) 66.1 % @6 (37/56) 57.9 % (11/19) 56.8 % (21/37) 76.8 % (43/56) 78.6 % (44/56) 2.3 % (1/44) 3.1 % (1/32)
  Testing on indication of Pelvic examination (PE)         
Gratrix et al. [21] STI clinic, Calgary, Canada ‘12 Received PE 1570 11.7 % (183/1570) N/A N/A N/A N/A 7.1 % (110/1543) N/A N/A N/A
Gratrix et al. [21] STI clinic, Edmonton, Canada. ‘12 Received PE 1485 13.5 % (201/1485) N/A N/A N/A N/A 12.6 % (177/1403) N/A N/A N/A
Barry et al. [20] STI clinic, San Francisco, USA, 07–‘08 Received PE 1308 5.1 % (67/1308) 21.8 % @3 (256/1173) 78.2 % @3 (917/1173) 4.3 % (11/256) 4.8 % (44/917) 5.9 % (76/1308) 6.7 % (88/1308) 15.9 % (14/88) 21.8 % (14/67)
  Self-triage Internet            
Ladd et al. [14] Internet iwantthekit.org, USA ’09–‘11 Self-request 205 12.7 % (26/205) 57.5 % @3 (118/205) 42.5 % @3 (87/205) N/A N/A 17.6 % (35/201) N/A N/A N/A
  Peer-intervention (social network)           
Dukers-Muijrers et al. [31] ‘Open population’ South Limburg Netherlands, ’13–14 Test provided by a friend (social network) 58 6.9 % (4/58) N/A N/A N/A N/A 6.9 % (4/58) 8.6 % (5/58) 20.0 % (1/5) 25.0 % (1/4)
  1. N/A Not Available, RAI receptive anal intercourse @ reported in the past 2, 3, 6, or 12 months;@ u: reporting period unknown @ e: reported ever, PE pelvic examination