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Table 1 Study sites and participants from whom stored samples were obtained

From: Performance of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin to distinguish viral from bacterial and malarial causes of fever in Southeast Asia

  Cambodia Laos Thai/Myanmar border
Recruitment sites Paediatric hospital Two provincial hospitals in northwest and southern Laos Migrant and refugee clinics on the Thai/Myanmar border
Enrolment dates October 2009 to October 2010 May 2008 to December 2010; September 2008 to December 2010 March 2011 to March 2013
Patients recruited n = 1180 n = 1938 n = 1029
Patient demographics <16 years (69 % < 5); 45 % female; All inpatients 5–49 years (37 % < 15); 42 % female; 44 % inpatients ≥5 years (45 % < 15 years); 36 % female; clinic attendants
Symptoms/syndromes used for inclusion/exclusion Documented axillary temperature ≥38 °C within 48 h of admission. All febrile inpatients were eligible irrespective of symptoms/syndromes but excluding post-surgical cases Fever (tympanic ≥38 °C) with no obvious cause < 8 days and eligible for a malaria test by Laos national guidelines (patients with obvious causes of fever such as abscess or severe diarrhoea were excluded) Documented fever ≥38 °C of up to seven days duration with no obvious cause. Patients with a clear clinical diagnosis such as chickenpox, pneumonia (based on clinical criteria), skin/soft tissue infection (e.g. cellulitis), or urinary tract infection were excluded
Documented mortality 5.6 % 0.5 % 0.1 %
Organisms tested for Plasmodium spp, Leptospira spp, O tsutsugamushi, R typhi, spotted-fever-group rickettsia, agents of conventional bacteraemia, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, influenza Plasmodium spp, Leptospira spp, O tsutsugamushi, R typhi, spotted-fever-group rickettsia, causes of community bacteraemia, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, influenza (in one of the two sites) Plasmodium spp, Leptospira spp, O tsutsugamushi, R typhi, spotted-fever-group rickettsia, causes of community bacteraemia, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis virus