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Table 2 Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus species from patients with pneumonia. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility between CLSI 2004–2011 and EUCAST 2012–2014 criteria

From: No development of ciprofloxacin resistance in the Haemophilus species associated with pneumonia over a 10-year study

    Number of patients with Haemophilus species = 82     
Drug groups Active substance No. using antibiotics (%) No. of antibiotic tests on antibiogram (%) Sensitive (%) Inter-mediate (%) Resistant (%) P value compared with Ampicillin + Sulbactam P value compared with Ciprofloxacin P value CAP compared to NAP
Penicillins Ampicillin 1 (1.2) 82 (100) 61 (74.4) 1 (1.2) 20 (24.4) 0.011 <0.0001  
   CAP 0 53 (100) 38 (71.7) 1 (1.9) 14 (26.4) 0.010 <0.0001 0.730
   NAP 1 (3.8) 26 (100) 20 (76.9) 0 6 (23.1) 0.066 <0.0001 0.730
   CLSI 1 (2.9) 34 (100) 24 (70.6) 1 (2.9) 9 (26.5) 0.019 <0.0001  
   EUCAST 0 48 (100) 38 (79.2) 0 11 (22.9) 0.028 <0.0001  
  Piperacillin 1 (1.2) 24 (29.3) 19 (79.2) 0 5 (20.8) 0.128 0.0001  
   CAP 1 (1.9) 12 (22.6) 8 (66.7) 0 4 (33.3) 0.022 <0.0001 0.430
   NAP 0 10 (38.5) 9 (90.0) 0 1 (10.0) 0.848 0.0167 0.430
   CLSI 1 (2.9) 24 (70.6) 19 (79.2) 0 5 (20.8) 0.128 0.0001  
   EUCAST 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 1.0  
Penicillin + Beta- lactamase inhibitors Ampicillin + Sulbactam 28 (34.1) 82 (100) 74 (90.2) 2 (2.4) 6 (7.3)   0.016  
   CAP 23 (43.4) 53 (100) 47 (88.7) 2 (3.8) 4 (7.5) 0.905 0.008 0.604
   NAP 4 (15.4) 26 (100) 24 (92.3) 0 2 (7.7) 0.723 0.042 0.604
   CLSI 12 (35.3) 34 (100) 29 (85.3) 2 (5.9) 3 (8.8) 0.619 0.002  
   EUCAST 16 (33.3) 48 (100) 45 (93.8) 0 3 (6.3) 0.533 0.075  
  Piperacillin + Sulbactam 8 (9.8) 23 (28.0) 22 (95.7) 0 1 (4.3) 0.651 0.169  
   CAP 2 (3.8) 11 (20.8) 10 (90.9) 0 1 (9.1) 0.856 0.024 0.622
   NAP 4 (15.4) 10 (38.5) 10 (100) 0 0 0.586 1.0 0.622
   CLSI 8 (23.5) 23 (67.6) 22 (95.7) 0 1 (4.3) 0.651 0.169  
   EUCAST 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 1.0  
  Piperacillin + Tazobactam 24 (29.3) 79 (96.3) 77 (97.5) 0 2 (2.5) 0.135 0.354  
   CAP 16 (30.2) 51 (96.2) 49 (96.1) 0 2 (3.9) 0.375 0.199 0.592
   NAP 8 (30.8) 26 (100) 26 (100) 0 0 0.254 1.0 0.592
   CLSI 8 (23.5) 31 (91.2) 29 (93.5) 0 2 (6.5) 0.667 0.070  
   EUCAST 16 (33.3) 48 (100) 48 (100) 0 0 0.083 1.0  
Cephalosporins Cefuroxime 3 (3.7) 82 (100) 73 (89.0) 2 (2.4) 7 (8.5) 0.961 0.009  
   CAP 0 53 (100) 46 (86.8) 1 (1.9) 6 (11.3) 0.715 0.004 0.492
   NAP 3 (11.5) 26 (100) 24 (92.3) 1 (3.8) 1 (3.8) 0.771 0.042 0.492
   CLSI 3 (8.8) 34 (100) 28 (82.4) 1 (2.9) 5 (14.7) 0.454 0.0005  
   EUCAST 0 48 (100) 45 (93.8) 1 (2.1) 2 (4.2) 0.760 0.075  
  Cefotaxime 0 80 (97.6) 78 (97.5) 0 2 (2.5) 0.13 0.359  
   CAP 0 52 (98.1) 50 (96.2) 0 2 (3.8) 0.362 0.206 0.598
   NAP 0 26 (100) 26 (100) 0 0 0.254 1.0 0.598
   CLSI 0 32 (94.1) 31 (96.9) 0 1 (3.1) 0.461 0.279  
   EUCAST 0 48 (100) 47 (97.9) 0 1 (2.1) 0.235 0.427  
Gyrase inhibitors Ciprofloxacin 5 (6.1) 81 (98.8) 81 (100) 0 0 0.016   
   CAP 2 (3.8) 52 (98.1) 52 (100) 0 0 0.067 1.0 1.0
   NAP 2 (7.7) 26 (100) 26 (100) 0 0 0.254 1.0 1.0
   CLSI 2 (5.9) 33 (97.1) 33 (100) 0 0 0.177 1.0  
   EUCAST 3 (6.3) 48 (100) 48 (100) 0 0 0.083 1.0  
  Levofloxacin 4 (4.9) 63 (76.8) 62 (98.4) 0 1 (1.6) 0.121 0.525  
   CAP 4 (7.5) 46 (86.8) 46 (100) 0 0 0.091 1.0 0.253
   NAP 0 17 (65.4) 16 (94.1) 0 1 (5.9) 0.787 0.090 0.253
   CLSI 0 16 (47.1) 16 (100) 0 0 0.427 1.0  
   EUCAST 4 (8.3) 47 (97.9) 46 (97.9) 0 1 (2.1) 0.244 0.419  
Macrolide Erythromycin 0 81 (98.8) 43 (53.1) 7 (8.6) 31 (38.3) <0.0001 <0.0001  
   CAP 1 (1.9) 52 (98.1) 27 (51.9) 6 (11.5) 19 (36.5) <0.0001 <0.0001 0.458
   NAP 0 26 (100) 13 (50) 1 (3.8) 12 (46.2) <0.0001 <0.0001 0.458
   CLSI 1 (2.9) 33 (97.1) 24 (72.7) 4 (12.1) 5 (15.2) 0.037 <0.0001  
   EUCAST 0 48 (100) 19 (39.6) 3 (6.3) 26 (54.2) <0.0001 <0.0001  
  1. Results of susceptibility testing of the active substances are shown in bold according to both CLSI and EUCAST criteria. Results are also shown to compare CAP and NAP
  2. Abbreviations: CAP community-acquired pneumonia, CLSI Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, EUCAST Europe-wide standards for susceptibility testing, NAP nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, MIC minimum inhibitory concentration
  3. Significant P values shown in bold