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Table 1 Clinical and microbiological characteristics of 45 patients according to first-line decolonization results

From: Intestinal decolonization of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL): a retrospective observational study in patients at risk for infection and a brief review of the literature

Parameter Total Decolonization success Decolonization failure
(n = 45) (n = 19) (n = 26)
Median age (range), yrs 57 (19–86) 56 (19–84) 60 (20–86)
Male, n (%) 20 (44 %) 9 (47 %) 11 (42 %)
Underlying diseases, n (%)    
 ▪ Renal transplant 12 (27 %) 5 (26 %) 7 (27 %)
 ▪ Other solid organ transplant 1 (2 %) 1 (5 %) -
 ▪ Autoimmune/collagen vascular disease 4 (9 %) 1 (5 %) 3 (12 %)
 ▪ Obstructive uropathy 16 (36 %) 5 (26 %) 11 (42 %)
 ▪ Nephrolithiasis 1 (2 %) 1 (5 %) -
 ▪ Lymphoma or cancer 6 (13 %) 4 (21 %) 2 (8 %)
 ▪ CVID 2 (4 %) 1 (5 %) 1 (4 %)
 ▪ Other 11 (24 %) 4 (21 %) 7 (27 %)
Previous infections, n (%)    
 ▪ Urinary tract infection 38 (84 %) 16 (84 %) 22 (85 %)
 ▪ Bloodstream 9 (20 %) 4 (21 %) 5 (19 %)
 ▪ Wound infection 5 (11 %) 3 (16 %) 2 (8 %)
 ▪ Respiratory tract infection 2 (4 %) 1 (5 %) 1 (4 %)
 ▪ other sites 2 (4 %) 1 (5 %) 1 (4 %)
Microorganisms, n (%)    
 ▪ E.coli 29 (64 %) 11 (58 %) 18 (69 %)
 ▪ E.coli plus other 9 (20 %) 5 (26 %) 4 (15 %)
 ▪ Klebsiella pneumoniae 6 (13 %) 2 (11 %) 4 (15 %)
 ▪ Enterobacter aerogenes 1 (2 %) 1 (5 %) -
In vitro resistance (E.coli) (n = 38), n (%)    
 ▪ Ciprofloxacin 33 (87 %) 13 (81 %) 20 (91 %)
 ▪ Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 35 (92 %) 14 (88 %) 21 (95 %)
 ▪ Gentamicin 21 (55 %) 7 (50 %) 14 (64 %)
 ▪ Tetracycline 33 (87 %) 14 (88 %) 19 (86 %)
 ▪ Fosfomycin - - -
 ▪ Nitrofurantoin 2 (5 %) - 2 (9 %)
Decolonization regimen, n (%)    
 ▪ Colistin 4 × 1 18 (40 %) 7 (37 %) 11 (42 %)
 ▪ Colistin 4 × 2 12 (27 %) 3 (16 %) 9 (35 %)
 ▪ Rifaximin 15 (33 %) 9 (47 %) 6 (23 %)
Initial additional UTI treatment, n (%) 26 (58 %) 8 (42 %) 18 (69 %)
 ▪ Oral fosfomycin 9 (20 %) 2 (11 %) 7 (27 %)
 ▪ Oral nitrofurantoin 3 (7 %) 1 (5 %) 2 (8 %)
 ▪ Oral cefpodoxime + amoxi-clav 7 (16 %) 4 (21 %) 3 (12 %)
 ▪ Parenteral carbapenem 7 (16 %) 1 (5 %) 6 (23 %)
  1. Yrs years, n numbers, CVID common variable immunodeficiency syndrome, UTI urinary tract infection, colistin daily dosage given in million units