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Table 3 Comparison of the use of specific antimicrobial classes and agents measured in defined daily doses per 1000 patient days in the pre- and post-intervention periods. P-values meeting the pre-specified Bonferroni corrected significance threshold are bolded.

From: Differential outcome of an antimicrobial stewardship audit and feedback program in two intensive care units: a controlled interrupted time series study

Unit Class or Agent Pre-intervention mean (SD) Post-intervention mean (SD) p-value
TNICU     
  antibacterials 1409 (203) 1001 (232) 0.0001
  antibacterials with antipseudomonal activity 349 (89) 195 (62) <0.0001
  antifungals 24(24) 36 (25) 0.33
  penicillin 15 (21) 19 (24) 0.63
  ampicillin 86 (67) 52 (39) 0.24
  cloxacillin 337(127) 235(128) 0.068
  piperacillin-tazobactam 72 (15) 71 (30) 0.71
  cefazolin 189 (55) 138 (43) 0.028
  ceftriaxone 78 (35) 67 (41) 0.29
  ceftazidime 52 (40) 34 (21) 0.41
  ertapenem 4 (7) 3 (7) 0.47
  meropenem 11 (18) 22 (32) 0.23
  imipenem 9 (10) 16 (14) 0.20
  fluoroquinolones 210 (81) 43 (32) <0.0001
  TMP-SMX 76 (73) 83 (57) 0.67
  azithromycin 12 (13) 21 (16) 0.20
  vancomycin 203 (110) 134 (52) 0.068
  aminoglycosides 4 (8) 8 (10) 0.18
MSICU     
  antibacterials 1547 (274) 1715 (263) 0.16
  antibacterials with antipseudomonal activity 445 (136) 588 (196) 0.028
  antifungals 177 (195) 202 (124) 0.14
  penicillin 55 (48) 44 (68) 0.29
  ampicillin 81 (58) 94 (89) 0.98
  cloxacillin 166 (119) 136(66) 0.93
  piperacillin-tazobactam 197 (53) 200 (34) 0.98
  cefazolin 68 (29) 83 (30) 0.35
  ceftriaxone 97 (27) 113 (40) 0.48
  ceftazidime 28 (21) 32 (29) 0.98
  ertapenem 19 (24) 15 (15) 0.77
  meropenem 28 (48) 55 (51) 0.033
  imipenem 49 (35) 47 (28) 0.84
  fluoroquinolones 138 (49) 180 (60) 0.078
  TMP-SMX 118 (93) 85 (41) 0.63
  azithromycin 101 (42) 132 (53) 0.11
  vancomycin 153 (38) 175 (43) 0.18
  aminoglycosides 29 (34) 55 (43) 0.088
  1. All p-values calculated using Wilcoxon rank sum test. SD, standard deviation; TNICU, trauma and neurosurgery intensive care unit; MSICU, medical surgical intensive care unit; TMP-SMX, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.