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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of MDR-TB/HIV co-infected adults based on exposure to ART before/after the commencement of MDR-TB treatment

From: Treatment outcomes in multidrug resistant tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus Co-infected patients on anti-retroviral therapy at Sizwe Tropical Disease Hospital Johannesburg, South Africa

Factors ART Prior ART After p-value
  N (%) (N = 545) N (%) (N = 402)  
Age 36 (31–43)* 35.5 (31–42)* 0.557b
Sex    
 Male 264 (48.4) 193 (48.0) 0.896c
 Female 281 (51.6) 209 (52.0)  
Categories of MDR-TB   
 Category I (New) 107 (19.6) 107 (26.6) 0.026*c
 Category II 438 (80.4) 295 (73.4)  
Pre-treatment smear status   
 Negative 166 (30.5) 134 (33.3) 0.595b
 Positive 317 (58.2) 221 (55.0)  
 Not available 62 (11.4) 47 (11.7)  
Site of TB    
 Pulmonary 432 (79.3) 346 (86.1) 0.007*c
 Extra-Pulmonary + Pulmonary 113 (20.7) 56 (13.9)  
BMI categories (Kg/m2)   
 Severely Underweight (<16) 68 (15.4) 41 (11.4) 0.174c
 Underweight (≥16–18.49) 130 (29.4) 111 (31.0)  
 Normal (≥18.5–24.99) 195 (44.1) 176 (49.2)  
 Overweight/ obese (25–29.99) 49 (11.1) 30 (8.4)  
Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis   
 No 21 (4.4) 32 (9.7) 0.003*c
 Yes 459 (95.6) 297(90.3)  
CD4 cell count (mls/mm3) 160.5 (89–270)a 156 (66–257)a 0.1906b
CD4 Categories (mls/mm3)   
 <150 241 (46.5) 187 (48.1) 0.296c
 150–349 209 (40.4) 140 (36.0)  
 ≥350 68 (13.1) 62 (15.9)  
Haemoglobin (g/dl) 11.3 (2.4)* 10.8(2.2)* 0.0012*d
Haemoglobin (g/dl)   
 Severe Anaemia (<7.0) 24 (4.5) 13 (3.3) 0.009*c
 Moderate Anaemia (7.0–9.9) 120 (22.3) 123 (31.0)  
 Mild Anaemia (10–10.99) 85 (15.8) 70 (17.7)  
 Normal (≥11) 308 (57.4) 190 (48.0)  
Duration on ART 218 (70–570)b 57.5 (32–111.5)b  
Outcome duration or Person time (days) 251 (90–725)b 720 (330–945)b 0.0286*b
Treatment-initiation-delay 11 (5–22)b 10 (6–21)b 0.921b
Infiltrative changes on x-ray   
 No 24 (4.5) 11 (2.8) 0.179c
 Yes 513 (95.5) 385 (97.2)  
Cavitary change on x-ray   
 No 315 (58.7) 237 (59.8) 0.715b
 Yes 222 (41.3) 159 (40.2)  
Fibrotic changes on x-ray   
 No 77 (14.3) 58 (14.7) 0.883c
 Yes 460 (85.7) 337 (85.3)  
Other Opportunistic Infections   
 No 399 (73.4) 228 (57.1) <0.001*c
 Yes 145 (26.6) 171 (42.9)  
Comorbidity    
 No 461 (85.8) 345 (88.0) 0.337c
 Yes 76 (14.2) 47 (12.0)  
Adverse events    
 No 295 (54.8) 239 (61.1) 0.055c
 Yes 243 (45.2) 152 (38.9)  
Regimen type at baseline   
 Standardised 370 (68.5) 295 (75.1) 0.029*c
 Modified individualised 170 (31.5) 98 (24.9)  
  1. Treatment-initiation-delay: Duration from report of MDR-TB to initiation of treatment
  2. N - Total number in each group; % - Column percentages; Numbers may not add-up to total because of missing variables
  3. Test statistic based on bRank-sum test, cChi-square test and dt-test
  4. *Significant p < 0.05, Mean and Standard Deviation. aMedian and Inter-quartile ranges