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Table 3 Numbera (and percentage) of hospitalized, emergency room, and asymptomatic control children testing positive for respiratory viruses by age group in months during 2008–2010

From: Incidence of viral respiratory infections in a prospective cohort of outpatient and hospitalized children aged ≤5 years and its associated cost in Buenos Aires, Argentina

  Hospitalized Emergency room Asymptomatic control children
  <6 6–23 24–71 0–71 <6 6–23 24–71 0–71 <6 6–23 24–71 0–71
RSV 9 (37) 14 (39) 3 (13) 26 (31) 7 (19) 16 (11) 12 (11) 35 (12) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4) 1 (3)
Metapneumovirus 3 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (5) 0 (0) 8 (6) 8 (8) 16 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Influenza 3 (13) 2 (5) 4 (16) 9 (10) 3 (8) 13 (9) 21 (19) 37 (13) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Rhinovirus 2 (12) 13 (46) 10 (56) 25 (40) 13 (37) 40 (29) 18 (17) 71 (26) 1 (33) 2 (33) 5 (18) 8 (22)
Adenovirus 0 (0) 1 (3) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 4 (3) 2 (2) 6 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Parainfluenza 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13 (9) 4 (4) 17 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Any virusb 17 (71) 27 (67) 17 (68) 61 (69) 21 (58) 89 (61) 60 (55) 170 (58) 1 (33) 2 (33) 6 (21) 9 (24)
  1. From July 2008 to December 2010, respiratory samples from Argentina children aged ≤5 years, who were hospitalized or who sought care at an emergency room with any acute respiratory infection sign or symptom (e.g., rhinorrhea, cough, wheezing, tachypnea, retractions, or cyanosis), were taken and tested for several respiratory viruses (Human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, Para-influenza, influenza, RSV and rhinovirus). RSV, human metapneumovirus, and influenza were frequently identified among hospitalized children aged <6 months (37, 18, 13 %, respectively) but seldom among asymptomatic controls (<3 %). Rhinovirus, however, was identified among 40 % of hospitalized children and 22 % of asymptomatic controls. Co-infections were an uncommon event in our study. Only five patients tested positive for two viruses: two children were positive for RSV and influenza, one for rhinovirus and RSV, one for rhinovirus and parainfluenza, and one for rhinovirus and adenovirus (results not shown)
  2. aAlthough all children for tested for all viruses, some samples yielded unreadable results. The unreadable results were excluded from the analysis. Therefore, there was some variation in the denominator for each virus
  3. bThe number of viruses detected in each column may not add up to the number of children with at least one virus because some children had coinfections