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Table 3 Multivariable analysis of prognostic factors for rate of laboratory measurement according to zero-inflated negative binomial models

From: Factors associated with the frequency of monitoring of liver enzymes, renal function and lipid laboratory markers among individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy: a cohort study

  Liver (AST/ALT) Renal (Creatinine) Metabolic (Lipids)
(N = 3934) (N = 3530) (N = 3530)
Rate ratio 95 % CI p-value Rate ratio 95 % CI p-value Rate ratio 95 % CI p-value
Negative binomial
Province
  British Columbia Ref    Ref    Ref   
  Ontario 0.98 (0.94,1.03) 0.48 1.35 (1.29,1.42) <0.0001 1.13 (1.05,1.21) <0.001
  Quebec 1.20 (1.13,1.27) <0.0001 1.70 (1.60,1.80) <0.0001 1.45 (1.34,1.57) <0.0001
Age (per 10 years) 1.02 (1.00,1.04) 0.03 1.03 (1.01,1.05) <0.01 1.05 (1.02,1.08) 0.0001
Male 1.02 (0.98,1.07) 0.37 1.01 (0.96,1.06) 0.72 1.14 (1.07,1.22) 0.0001
Race
  Caucasian Ref    Ref    Ref   
  Black 1.03 (0.97,1.10) 0.37 0.93 (0.86,1.00) 0.04 0.80 (0.72,0.89) <0.0001
  Aboriginal 0.87 (0.79,0.96) <0.01 0.87 (0.79,0.97) <0.01 0.84 (0.72,0.97) 0.02
  Other 1.11 (1.04,1.18) <0.01 1.09 (1.02,1.16) <0.01 1.06 (0.97,1.16) 0.19
  Unknown 0.89 (0.85,0.93) <0.0001 0.92 (0.88,0.96) <0.001 0.76 (0.71,0.81) <0.0001
HCV and IDU status
  HCV-non-IDU Ref    Ref    Ref   
  HCV+ non-IDU 1.05 (0.97,1.14) 0.21 1.07 (0.99,1.15) 0.09 1.00 (0.89,1.12) 0.99
  HCV-IDU 0.98 (0.89,1.07) 0.62 0.95 (0.87,1.05) 0.31 0.95 (0.83,1.08) 0.43
  HCV+ IDU 0.79 (0.74,0.83) <0.0001 0.80 (0.75,0.85) <0.0001 0.65 (0.59,0.71) <0.0001
  Unknown 0.97 (0.93,1.02) 0.21 1.00 (0.96,1.04) 0.96 1.28 (1.20,1.36) <0.0001
CD4 measurements:
  <3 per year Ref    Ref    Ref   
  3-5 per year 1.87 (1.79,1.95) <0.0001 1.76 (1.68,1.84) <0.0001 1.84 (1.73,1.97) <0.0001
  ≥6 per year 2.67 (2.52,2.83) <0.0001 2.56 (2.41,2.71) <0.0001 2.79 (2.56,3.03) <0.0001
First cART regimen
  Other Ref    Ref    Ref   
  NNRTI based 0.95 (0.86,1.05) 0.32 0.97 (0.88,1.06) 0.47 0.78 (0.68,0.90) <0.001
  Boosted PI based 0.96 (0.87,1.07) 0.48 1.01 (0.91,1.11) 0.89 0.88 (0.77,1.02) 0.08
  PI based 0.95 (0.85,1.05) 0.32 0.95 (0.86,1.05) 0.35 0.78 (0.67,0.90) <0.001
  Abacavir use -- -- -- -- --   1.13 (1.08,1.18) <0.0001
  Tenofovir use -- -- -- 0.99 (0.96,1.03) 0.68 -- -- --
Zero-inflated
  IDU 0.19 (0.11,0.32) <0.0001 0.22 (0.15, 0.34) <0.0001 0.17 (0.11,0.26) <0.0001
  Unknown HIV risk factor 1.32 (0.50,3.48) 0.58 1.14 (0.59,2.19) 0.70 0.96 (0.43,2.14) 0.92
  1. IDU injection drug use as risk factor for HIV acquisition, HCV+, positive for Hepatitis C