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Table 4 Rates of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (SARI program – lytA-positive) and invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (GERMS program – culture-positive) among HIV-uninfected children <2 years of age hospitalized at Chris Hani-Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, South Africa, 2009–2012.

From: Assessing the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease using polymerase chain reaction-based surveillance: an experience from South Africa

PCV serotypes Hospitalization rates per 100,000 person-years Relative difference in hospitalization rates
2009 2011 2012 2009 to 2011 2009 to 2012
Rate (95 % CI) Rate (95 % CI) Rate (95 % CI) % (95 % CI) p % (95 % CI) p
Any lytA-positive (SARI program)
 PCV-7 125.1 (93.7–163.6) 23.9 (11.9–42.8) 45.2 (28.0–69.1) −80.9 (−90.9 to −62.9) <0.001 −63.8 (−79.3 to −39.1) <0.001
 PCV-13 37.8 (21.6–61.3) 15.2 (6.1–31.3) 34.4 (19.7–55.9) −59.7 (−85.9 to +3.4) 0.067 +8.8 (−94.8 to +57.3) 0.796
 NVT 273.7 (226.2–328.3) 47.8 (30.0–72.4) 77.5 (54.3–107.3) − 82.5 (−89.4 to −72.3) <0.001 −71.7 (−81.1 to −58.5) <0.001
 All 436.6 (375.9–504.2) 86.9 (62.1–118.3) 157.1 (123.2–197.6) −80.1 (−86.2 to −71.8) <0.001 −64.0 (−72.9 to −52.6) <0.001
Culture-positive (GERMS program)
 PCV-7 77.9 (53.6–109.3) 13.0 (4.8–28.4) 6.5 (1.3–18.9) −83.2 (−94.2 to – 59.5) <0.001 −91.7 (−98.4 to −73.6) <0.001
 PCV-13 23.6 (11.3–43.4) 17.4 (7.5–34.2) 8.6 (2.3–22.1) −26.3 (−74.7 to +107.3) 0.529 −63.5 (−91.6 to +26.5) 0.084
 NVT 28.3 (14.6–49.5) 28.2 (15.0–48.3) 28.0 (14.9–47.8) −0.2 (−58.0 to +139.2) 0.993 +1.2 (−96.7 to +58.4) 0.974
 All 129.8 (97.8–168.9) 58.6 (38.7–85.3) 43.1 (26.3–66.5) −54.8 (−72.6 to −27.1) <0.001 −66.8 (−81.2 to −43.8) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: PCV-7: 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes (included serotypes/serogroups 4, 6A/B, 9A/V/L/N, 14, 18A/B/C, 19B/F, 23 F for lyA-positive samples and 4, 6A/B, 9 V, 14, 18C, 19 F, 23 F for culture-positive samples); PCV-13: additional 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes (included serotypes/serogroups 1, 3, 5, 7A/F, 19A for lyA-positive samples and 1, 3, 5, 7 F, 19A for culture-positive samples); NVT: serotypes/serogroups not included in PCV-7 or PCV-13, including samples that tested negative for the 42 serotypes detected by the serotyping assay for lytA-positive samples