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Table 2 Risk factors for enterococcal infection

From: Clinical characteristics and risk factors of enterococcal infections in Nagasaki, Japan: a retrospective study

  Enterococcal infections Enterococcus faecalis infections Enterococcus faecium infections
Infections Controls Univariate Multivariate Infections Controls Univariate Multivariate Infections Controls Univariate Multivariate
n = 182 n = 358 p value Adjusted OR (95 % CI) p value n = 144 n = 275 p value Adjusted OR (95 % CI) p value n = 38 n = 83 p value Adjusted OR (95 % CI) p value
Age, years, mean (SD) 64.6 (18.2) 61.6(22.4) 0.458 - - 65.0 (19.3) 60.7 (23.0) 0.187 - - 64.8(13.5) 64.7 (20.1) 0.351 - -
Sex (male), n (%) 114 (62.6) 183 (51.1) 0.011 1.504 (1.032-2.190) 0.033 89 (61.8) 142 (51.6) 0.047 - - 25 (65.8) 41 (49.4) 0.094 - -
Comorbidities, n (%)                
Diabetes mellitus 38 (20.9) 80 (22.3) 0.697 - - 31 (21.5) 63 (22.9) 0.748 - - 7 (18.4) 17 (20.5) 0.793 - -
Cancer and hematologic malignancy 96 (52.7) 171 (47.8) 0.274 - - 77 (53.5) 131 (47.6) 0.257 - - 19 (50.0) 40 (48.2) 0.854 - -
Chronic kidney disease 52 (28.6) 109 (30.4) 0.653 - - 39 (27.0) 84 (30.5) 0.46 - - 13 (34.2) 25 (30.1) 0.654 - -
Structural abnormality of the urinary tract 21 (11.5) 22 (6.1) 0.029 2.086 (1.088–4.000) 0.027 20 (13.8) 17 (6.2) 0.008 2.634 (1.294–5.362) 0.008 1 (2.6) 5 (6.0) 0.427 - -
Hemodialysis 12 (6.6) 33 (9.2) 0.297 - - 10 (6.9) 20 (7.3) 0.902 - - 2 (5.3) 13 (15.6) 0.109 - -
Therapy for comorbidities, n (%)                
Abdominal surgery 90 (49.5) 102 (28.5) 0 2.233 (1.529–3.261) 0 68 (47.2) 72 (26.2) 0 2.263 (1.464–3.498) 0 22 (57.9) 30 (36.1) 0.025 - -
Steroids 42 (23.1) 75 (20.9) 0.571 - - 23 (16.0) 47 (17.1) 0.771 - - 19 (50.0) 28 (33.7) 0.09 - -
Immunosuppressive agents 30 (16.5) 41 (11.5) 0.102 - - 17 (11.8) 29 (10.5) 0.696 - - 13 (34.2) 12 (14.5) 0.013 3.837 (1.397–10.541) 0.009
Chemotherapy 30 (16.5) 62 (17.3) 0.807 - - 23 (16.0) 47 (17.1) 0.771 - - 7 (18.4) 15 (18.1) 0.963 - -
Urinary catheterization, n (%) 75 (41.2) 145 (40.5) 0.875 - - 57 (39.6) 103 (37.5) 0.671 - - 18 (47.4) 42 (50.6) 0.742 - -
Using in situ device, n (%) 120 (65.9) 190 (53.1) 0.004 - - 86 (59.7) 132 (48.0) 0.023 - - 34 (89.5) 58 (69.9) 0.02 3.807 (1.180-12.276) 0.025
Hemoglobin (g/dL), mean (SD) 9.89 (1.97) 10.2 (2.0) 0.093 - - 10.0 (2.0) 10.4 (2.1) 0.17 - - 9.37 (1.96) 9.63 (1.48) 0.143 - -
Albumin (g/dL), mean (SD) 2.86 (0.63) 3.06 (0.87) 0.01 0.731 (0.555-0.963) 0.026 2.86 (0.63) 3.13 (0.93) 0.002 0.668 (0.490-0.911) 0.011 2.88 (0.63) 2.85 (0.55) 0.823 - -
In-hospital mortality (%) 8.2 8.9 0.786 - - 9 7.3 0.527 - - 5.3 14.5 0.144 - -
Total hospital stay (days), mean (±SD) 80.9 (95.0) 74.0 (110) 0.053 - - 77.5 (101) 70.8 (95.0) 0.223 - - 93.8 (68.3) 86.8 (149) 0.04 - -
  Hosmer–Lemeshow: p = 0.571 Hosmer–Lemeshow: p = 0.825. Hosmer–Lemeshow: p = 0.677.