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Table 2 Overall and sensitivity analysis results of immunogenicity of intradermal versus intramuscular administration of influenza vaccine

From: Immunogenicity and safety of intradermal influenza vaccine in immunocompromized patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

  H1N1 H3N2 B
SEROPROTECTION No. studies No. patients Overall RR (95 % CI)a Heterogeneity test (p; I2%) No. studies No. patients Overall RR (95 % CI)a Heterogeneity test (p; I2%) No. studies No. patients Overall RR (95 % CI)a Heterogeneity test (p; I2%)
All studies 6 673 1.00 (0.91-1.1) 0.272;21.5 6 673 1.00 (0.9-1.12) 0.042;56.6 6 673 0.99 (0.84-1.16) 0.072;50.5
High qualityb 5 566 1.01 (0.86-1.18) 0.177; 36.7 5 566 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 0.05;57.9 5 566 0.98 (0.79-1.22) 0.041;59.8
Low qualityb 1 107 1.02 (0.94-1.11) - 1 107 0.98 (0.92-1.05) - 1 107 0.94 (0.79-1.16) -
Antigen content ≥12 μg 3 358 1.13 (0.9-1.43) 0.248;28.4 3 358 1.03 (0.77-1.39) 0.01;78.4 3 358 0.94 (0.61-1.47) 0.01;78.1
Antigen content ≤ 9 μg 3 315 0.95 (0.8-1.14) 0.067;63 3 315 0.99 (0.93-1.05) 0.368;0.1 3 315 0.96 (0.84-1.09) 0.935;0
One injection 4 377 0.99 (0.86-1.15) 0.136;45.9 4 377 1.04 (0.9-1.2) 0.087;54. 3 4 377 0.98 (0.87-1.11) 0.783;0
Two injections 2 296 1.05 (0.84-1.3) 0.291;10.2 2 296 0.96 (0.72-1.29) 0.015;83.1 2 296 0.8 (0.34-1.99) 0.003;88.8
Mantoux technique 2 263 0.93 (0.71-1.24) 0.012;84 2 263 1.00 (0.89-1.13) 0.177;45.2 2 263 0.95 (0.82-1.1) 0.819;0
Micro injection system 4 410 1.06 (0.92-1.22) 0.378;2.9 4 410 1.02 (0.83-1.26) 0.027;67.4 4 410 0.98 (0.73-1.32) 0.027;67.4
Cause of immunosuppression:
 Transplantation 4 344 1.11 (0.86-1.43) 0.228;30.7 4 344 1.04 (0.8-1.35) 0.22;68.9 4 344 0.91 (0.61-1.36) 0.018;70.2
 Other diseasesb 3 488 0.98 (0.87-1.1) 0.216;34.7 3 488 0.99 (0.93-1.05) 0.465;0 4 488 0.97 (0.86-1.1) 0.98;0
SEROCONVERSION
All studies 5 517 1.00 (0.84-1.19) 0.532;0 5 517 1.08 (0.86-1.36) 0.569;0 5 517 0.92 (0.72-1.17) 0.578;0
High qualityb 4 410 1.04 (0.79-1.36) 0.399; 0 4 410 1.00 (0.75-1.34) 0.52;0 4 410 1.13 (0.77-1.66) 0.823;0
Low qualityb 1 107 0.98 (0.78-1.23) - 1 107 1.23 (0.83-1.83) - 1 107 0.80 (0.59-1.09) -
Antigen content ≥12 μg 3 358 1.17 (0.85-1.62) 0.545;0 3 358 1.06 (0.73-1.55) 0.36;2 3 358 1.11 (0.7-1.75) 0.641;0
Antigen content ≤ 9 μg 2 159 0.95 (0.77-1.16) 0.443;0 2 159 1.1 (0.81-1.45) 0.35;0 2 159 0.85 (0.64-1.13) 0.33;0
One injection 3 221 0.99 (0.74-1.34) 0.242;29.6 3 221 1.16 (0.86-1.57) 0.341;7 3 221 0.86 (0.65-1.13) 0.589;0
Two injections 2 296 1.09 (0.77-1.55) 0.961;0 2 296 0.94 (0.63-1.4) 0.735;0 2 296 1.14 (0.68-1.9) 0.359;0
Mantoux technique 1 107 0.98 (0.78-1.23) - 1 107 1.23 (0.83-1.83) - 1 107 0.80 (0.59-1.09) -
Micro injection system 4 410 1.04 (0.79-1.36) 0.399; 0 4 410 1.00 (0.75-1.34) 0.52;0 4 410 1.13 (0.77-1.66) 0.823;0
Cause of immunosuppression:             
 Transplantation 3 358 1.17 (0.85-1.62) 0.545;0 3 358 1.06 (0.73-1.55) 0.36;2 3 358 1.11 (0.7-1.75) 0.641;0
 Other diseasesc 2 159 0.95 (0.77-1.16) 0.443;0 2 159 1.1 (0.81-1.45) 0.35;0 2 159 0.85 (0.64-1.13) 0.33;0
  1. aRRs and 95 % CIs were calculated with the DerSimonian and Laird random effect model
  2. bReferred to Jadad scores
  3. cSolid cancers, HIV infection, rheumatologic disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor