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Table 2 Prevalence of SPn colonization in relation to various factors during respiratory tract infection

From: The influence of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization on the clinical outcome of the respiratory tract infections in preschool children

Characteristic   Colonized (n = 367) Non-colonized (n = 533) PR (95 % CI) P value
Age (months) a: <24c 90 158   
24–47 196 222 1.050 (0.813–1.356) 0.840
48–71 75 137 0.736 (0.542–0.999) 0.049
Sex Male 199 293 0.982 (0.939–1.150) 0.824
Femalec 168 240   
Siblings   145 189 1.114 (0.949–1.308) 0.187
DCC attendanceb   270 338 1.423 (1.105–1.832) 0.006
Signs and symptoms: Coryza 276 390 0.962 (0.753–1.230) 0.757
Cough 240 331 1.133 (0.884–1.452) 0.323
Fever 213 304 0.919 (0.740–1.143) 0.449
Tonsils 191 260 1.074 (0.882–1.308) 0.478
Auscultation 62 102 1.391 (0.881–2.197) 0.157
Throat 295 416 1.087 (0.693–1.704) 0.716
Recovery: 1–2 weeksc 213 382   
3–4 weeks 114 98 1.502 (1.274–1.771) < 0.001
> 4 weeks 8 12 1.117 (0.646–1.932) 0.691
Antimicrobial use   204 157 1.901 (1.618–2.234) < 0.001
Diagnoses URTIc 208 384   
Bronchitis 62 51 1.562 (1.279–1.907) < 0.001
Pneumonia 14 10 1.660 (1.164–2.369) 0.005
Sinusitis 23 13 1.818 (1.390–2.379) < 0.001
AOM 35 41 1.311 (1.004–1.712) 0.047
Others 5 7 1.186 (0.602–2.337) 0.622
Non-specified 20 27 1.211 (0.854–1.718) 0.283
  1. PR (95 % CI)–prevalence ratio and 95 % confidence interval of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization
  2. Coryza–nasal secretion and/or nasal congestion
  3. Fever–body temperature above 37.0 °C
  4. Throat–signs of inflammation of the throat, including redness, oedema, and papules
  5. Tonsils–signs of inflammation of the palatine tonsils, including redness, oedema, coating, and blisters
  6. Auscultation–auscultation of the lungs, including signs of obstruction, rales, and crackles
  7. aAdjusted for DCC attendance
  8. bAdjusted for age
  9. cRefference group for each comparison