Skip to main content

Table 2 Frequency (percent) or median (interquartile range) of collected variables in full cohort and by confirmed blood culture results

From: Blood cultures taken from patients attending emergency departments in South Africa are an important antibiotic stewardship tool, which directly influences patient management

Characteristic All data n = 500 Blood culture negative n = 461 Blood culture positive n = 39 OR (95 % CI)
N (%) or Median (IQR) N (%) or Median (IQR) N (%) or Median (IQR)
Blood volume (mls) 8.89 (6.18, 11.1) 8.83 (6.06, 11) 9.47 (7.5, 11.3) 1.05 (0.97, 1.12)
Weight (kg) 72.6 (69.4, 76.2) 72.6 (69.3, 76.2) 73.1 (70.9, 75.7) 0.99 (0.98, 1)
Age (years) 48 (31, 64) 47 (31, 64) 51 (32, 64.5) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
Temperature (C) 37.4 (36.2, 38.4) 37.4 (36.2, 38.4) 37.4 (36.4, 38.5) 1.14 (0.92, 1.45)
Pulse (bpm) 110 (93, 122) 109 (92, 122) 117 (100, 130) 1.02 (1, 1.04)
Respiratory rate (bpm) 22 (18, 28) 22 (18, 28) 24 (20, 29.8) 1.02 (0.98, 1.06)
Oxygen saturations 96 (92, 98) 96 (92, 98) 96 (91, 98) 0.99 (0.94, 1.05)
Inspired oxygen concentration (%) 21 (21, 21) 21 (21, 21) 21 (21, 21) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
Chills present 210 (43.8) 190 (43) 20 (52.6) 1.57 (0.83, 3)
Confusion present 142 (29.5) 130 (29.4) 12 (30.8) 1.09 (0.53, 2.11)
CRB 65 score     
 0 169 (33.8) 161 (34.9) 8 (20.5) 1.00 (ref)
 1 191 (38.2) 173 (37.5) 18 (46.1) 1.69 (0.78, 3.87)
 2 101 (20.2) 95 (20.6) 6 (15.4) 1.03 (0.34, 2.85)
 3 35 (7) 29 (6.3) 6 (15.4) 3.21 (1.03, 9.32)
 4 4 (0.8) 3 (0.6) 1 (2.6) 5.53 (0.26, 47.95)
Diabetic 111 (22.2) 96 (20.8) 15 (38.5) 2.08 (1.04, 4.01)
HIV infected 96 (19.2) 87 (18.9) 9 (23.1) 1.33 (0.6, 2.72)
Hospital     
GSH 409 (82) 374 (81.3) 35 (89.7) 1.00 (ref)
VIC 90 (18) 86 (18.7) 4 (10.3) 0.43 (0.13, 1.1)
Diastolic blood pressure <60 mmHg 138 (28) 118 (26) 20 (51.3) 2.48 (1.3, 4.7)
Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg 38 (7.7) 30 (6.6) 8 (21.1) 3.26 (1.31, 7.34)
Sex     
 Female 263 (52.6) 244 (52.9) 19 (48.7) 1.00 (ref)
 Male 237 (47.4) 217 (47.1) 20 (51.3) 1.38 (0.74, 2.63)
Current malignancy present 35 (7) 30 (6.5) 5 (12.8) 2.52 (0.9, 6.09)
Antibiotics in previous 48 h 84 (17.2) 80 (17.8) 4 (10.3) 0.51 (0.15, 1.33)
Source (reduced categories – used in all modelling)     
Othersa  88 (17.6)  86 (18.7)  2 (5.1)  0.32 (0.05,1.17)
Biliary 19 (3.8) 12 (2.6) 7 (17.9) 9.42 (3.25, 26.83)
LRTI 206 (41.2) 195 (42.3) 11 (28.2) 1.00 (ref)
Meningitis 28 (5.6) 24 (5.2) 4 (10.3) 2.36 (0.63, 7.24)
Unknown 103 (20.6) 93 (20.2) 10 (25.6) 1.59 (0.66, 3.75)
UTI 56 (11.2) 51 (11.1) 5 (12.8) 1.44 (0.45, 4.02)
  1. P-value by Fisher’s exact test (discrete variables) or Wilcoxon rank sum test (continuous variables), odd’s ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval from univariate logistic regression
  2. *p-value by Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables, Fisher’s exact test for discrete variables except for the reduced source variable. OR (95 % CI) estimated on full data set
  3. aOthers includes categories: bowel, endocarditis, gynae, other, SSTI
\