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Table 2 Economic model inputs by World Bank income level [34] for vaccine, treatment, and societal costs in 2013 United States dollars ($), with earlier estimates converted using the United States Consumer Price Index. [37]

From: An economic analysis of poliovirus risk management policy options for 2013–2052

Model input Base Case Value Source
Low-income country Lower middle-income country Upper middle-income country High-income country
Vaccine price per dose      [18,73]
 - OPV (any formulation) $ 0.12 $ 0.12 $ 0.13 $ 0.16
 - IPV (10-dose vial) $ 1.30 $ 2.30 $ 3.20 $ 13.00
Effective vaccine wastage      [18,42,44]
 - OPV in RI 50 % 50 % 30 % 10 %
 - OPV or IPV in SIAs 44 % 44 % 44 % 44 %
 - IPV (10-dose vial) 40%a 40%a 30 % or 25%a 10 % or 5%a
Administration costs per dose      [18,42]
 - OPV in RI $ 0.86 $ 0.86 $ 2.29 $ 2.90
 - OPV co-administered in RIb $ 0.30 $ 0.30 N/A N/A
 - OPV in pSIAs $ 0.60 $ 0.60 $ 3.30 $ 4.20
 - OPV in oSIAsc $ 0.90 $ 0.90 $ 4.95 $ 6.30
 - IPV single antigen in RI $ 1.08 $ 1.08 $ 2.86 $ 10.36
 - IPV combo in RI N/A N/A $ 0.72 $ 2.59
Treatment costs per paralytic polio case $ 650 $ 6,500 $ 65,000 $ 650,000 [26,40]
Disability-adjusted life-years per paralytic polio case 13 14 14 14 [26,40]
Societal economic costs per paralytic polio cased $ 7,800 $ 27,000 $ 96,000 $ 550,000 [40,46]
  1. Abbreviations: IPV, inactivated poliovirus vaccine; N/A, not applicable; OPV, oral poliovirus vaccine; oSIA, outbreak response SIA; pSIA, planned, preventive SIA; RI, routine immunization; SIA, supplemental immunization activity
  2. Based on estimates for single IPV-dose in low and lower middle-income countries, and 2 (sequential) or 3 or more IPV doses (IPV-only) in the RI schedule, respectively, with lower values than prior estimates [18] to reflect the subsequently modified WHO open vial policy [74]
  3. b Incremental cost of for OPV co-administered with an IPV dose; estimate based on judgment
  4. c oSIA administration costs assume 1.5 times the costs for pSIAs [42]
  5. d Based on DALY estimate, multiplied by the average annual per-capita gross national income of $597 for 33 low-income countries, $1,898 for 45 lower middle-income countries, $6,885 for 45 upper middle-income countries, and $39,091 for 49 high-income countries [46]. No estimates were available for 3 low-income countries (i.e., Democratic Republic of Korea, Myanmar, and Somalia), 3 lower middle-income countries (i.e., Djibouti, West Bank and Gaza, Syrian Arab Republic), 5 upper middle-income countries (i.e., Argentina, Belize, Cuba, Iran, Libya), and 17 mostly small high-income countries (i.e., Bahrain, Brunei Darussalam, Israel, Kuwait, New Zealand, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and small island nations or extra-territorial states with autonomous status) otherwise included in the analysis.