Skip to main content

Table 1 Performance of proadrenomedullin, copeptin, C-reactive protein, white blood cell and band neutrophils (band cells) counts, for predicting “complicated” (with empyema or bacteremia) and “bacteremic“community-acquired pneumonia

From: Proadrenomedullin and copeptin in pediatric pneumonia: a prospective diagnostic accuracy study

Complicated CAP (n = 11; 12.5 %) vs. non-complicated CAP (n = 77)
N = 88 Proadrenomedullin >0.16 nmol/L Copeptin >10 pmol/L CRP >100 mg/L White blood cells >15G/L Band cells >1.5G/L
   Sensitivity % 72.7 (39.0–94.0) 45.5 (16.7–76.6) 100.0 (71.5–100) 72.7 (39.0–94.0) 90.9 (58.7–99.8)
   Specificity % 71.4 (60.0–81.2) 68.8 (57.3–78.9) 77.0 (65.8–86.0) 58.7 (46.7–69.9) 75.7 (64.3–84.9)
   LR+ 2.55 (1.5–4.2) 1.46 (0.70–3.0) 4.11 (2.68–6.29) 1.76 (1.12–2.76) 3.55 (2.26–5.56)
   LR- 0.38 (0.1–1.0) 0.79 (0.45–1.39) 0.05 (0.00–0.82) 0.46 (0.17–1.24) 0.17 (0.04–0.75)
   PPV% 26.7 (12.3–45.9) 17.2 (5.8–35.8) 39.3 (21.5–59.4) 20.5 (9.3–36.5) 35.7 (18.6–55.9)
   NPV% 94.8 (85.6–98.9) 89.8 (79.2–96.2) 100.0 (93.7–100) 93.6 (82.5–98.7) 98.2 (90.6–100)
   ROC area 0.72 (0.6–0.9) 0.57 (0.41–0.73) 0.89 (0.84–0.93) 0.66 (0.51–0.81) 0.83 (0.73–0.93)
   Odds ratioa 6.67 (1.7–25.3) 1.84 (0.54–6.30) 75.6 (4.2–1348) 3.78 (1.00–14.2) 21.4 (3.57–128)
Bacteremic CAP (n = 4; 4.5 %) vs. non-bacteremic CAP (n = 84)
N = 88 Proadrenomedullin >0.16 nmol/L Copeptin >10 pmol/L CRP >100 mg/L White blood cells >15G/L Band cells >1.5G/L
   Sensitivity % 100 (39.8–100.0) 50.0 (6.8–93.2) 100 (39.8–100) 75.0 (19.4–99.4) 75.0 (19.4–99.4)
   Specificity % 70.0 (58.7–79.7) 67.5 (56.1–77.6) 70.5 (59.1–80.3) 57.0 (45.3–68.1) 71.8 (60.5–81.4)
   LR+ 2.98 (1.91–4.63) 1.54 (0.55–4.31) 3.03 (1.93–4.73) 1.62 (0.87–3.04) 2.46 (1.26–4.81)
   LR- 0.14 (0.01–2.00) 0.74 (0.27–2.00) 0.14 (0.01–1.98) 0.53 (0.14–2.04) 0.42 (0.11–1.61)
   PPV % 14.3 (4.0–32.7) 7.1 (0.9–23.5) 14.8 (4.2–33.7) 8.1 (1.7–21.9) 12.0 (2.5–31.2)
   NPV % 100.0 (93.6–100.0) 96.4 (87.7–99.6) 100 (93.5–100) 97.8 (88.5–99.9) 98.2 (90.6–100)
   ROC area 0.85 (0.80–0.90) 0.59 (0.30–0.88) 0.85 (0.80–0.90) 0.66 (0.41–0.91) 0.73 (0.48–0.98)
   Odds ratioa 20.8 (1.1–400.5) 2.08 (0.35–12.5) 21.3 (1.1–411) 3.08 (0.43–21.9) 5.86 (0.81–42.2)
  1. CAP Community-acquired pneumonia, CRP C-reactive protein, ROC area Receiver-Operator Characteristic area under the curve, LR+ and LR Likelihood ratio of a positive or negative result, NPV and PPV Negative and Positive Predictive Values (NPV, PPV); aAll odds ratios (OR) are multivariable-adjusted-OR (age, sex, previous medication and pneumococcal vaccination)