Skip to main content

Table 1 Episodes of bloodstream infection stratified according to low (CRP 0–10 mg/L), intermediate (CRP 11–100 mg/L) and high (CRP > 100 mg/L) level

From: Characteristics of neonates with culture-proven bloodstream infection who have low levels of C-reactive protein (10 mg/L)

Characteristics CRP 0–10 mg/L (n = 247) CRP 11–100 mg/L (n = 563) CRP > 100 mg/L (n = 176) p value
Demographic characteristics     
 Birth weight (g), mean ± SD 1310 ± 746 1507.9 ± 809 1725.2 ± 959 0.004
  median (IQR) 1310 (920–1740) 1530 (885–1975) 1685 (923–2610)  
 Gestational age (weeks), mean ± SD 30.2 ± 4.3 30.5 ± 4.6 31.4 ± 5.2 0.036
  median (IQR) 30.0 (27.0–33.0) 30.0 (27.0–34.0) 30.0 (27.0–36.0)  
 Male sex, n (%) 140 (56.7) 292 (51.9) 88 (50.0) 0.154
Onset of BSI (day), median (IQR) 23.0 (15.0–43.0) 30.0 (18.0–56.0) 32.5 (19.0–63.8) <0.001
Perinatal history     
 NSD/CS 112 (45.3)/135 (54.7) 220 (39.1)/343 (60.9) 81 (46.0)/95 (54.0) 0.901
 Inborn/outborn 163 (66.0)/84 (34.0) 381 (67.7)/182 (32.3) 112 (63.6)/64 (36.4) 0.697
 Low apgar score at 5 min (7) 111 (44.9) 255 (45.3) 70 (39.8) 0.344
 Perinatal asphyxia 18 (7.3) 48 (8.5) 11 (6.3) 0.738
Underlying chronic conditionsa     
 Congenital anomalies 15 (6.1) 35 (6.2) 18 (10.2) 0.128
 Neurological comorbidities 35 (14.2) 63 (11.2) 31 (17.6) 0.443
 Complicated congenital heart disease (CHD) 8 (3.2) 23 (4.1) 4 (2.3) 0.696
 Acyanotic CHD with heart failure 5 (2.0) 9 (1.6) 7 (4.0) 0.234
 Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 66 (26.7) 188 (33.4) 60 (34.1) 0.087
 Pulmonary hypertension 3 (1.2) 18 (3.2) 11 (6.3) 0.004
 Gastrointestinal pathology 4 (1.6) 47 (8.3) 15 (8.5) 0.002
 Renal 6 (2.4) 17 (3.0) 12 (6.8) 0.024
 Cholestasisb 30 (12.1) 117 (20.8) 41 (23.3) 0.002
Clinical septic symptoms     
 Fever (temperature > 38 °C) 99 (40.1) 228 (40.5) 84 (47.7) 0.135
 Apnea ± bradycardia and/or cyanosis 158 (64.0) 385 (68.4) 139 (79.0) 0.001
 Abdominal distension ± feeding intolerance 130 (52.6) 328 (58.3) 139 (79.0) <0.001
 Tachycardia 55 (22.3) 134 (23.8) 35 (19.9) 0.652
 Hyper- or hypoglycemia 53 (21.5) 157 (27.9) 55 (31.3) 0.020
 Septic shock 32 (13.0) 93 (16.5) 45 (25.6) 0.001
 Disseminated intravascular Coagulopathy 12 (4.9) 45 (8.0) 30 (17.0) <0.001
Laboratory parameter     
 Leukopenia (WBC count < 4000/uL) 25 (10.1) 109 (19.4) 38 (21.6) 0.001
 Leukocytosis (WBC count > 20,000/uL) 62 (25.1) 151 (26.8) 64 (36.4) 0.017
 WBC shift to left (immature WBC ≥ 20 % total) 13 (5.3) 65 (11.5) 44 (25.0) <0.001
 Anemia (hemoglobin < 11.0 mg/dL) 79 (32.5) 217 (38.5) 98 (55.7) <0.001
 Thrombocytopenia (platelet < 80,000/uL) 41 (16.6) 197 (35.0) 110 (62.5) <0.001
 Metabolic acidosis 26 (10.7) 104 (18.5) 60 (34.1) <0.001
 Prolonged PT and/or aPTT 34 (14.0) 150 (26.6) 70 (39.8) <0.001
NTISS score, mean ± SD 16.3 ± 4.2 16.9 ± 4.6 18.2 ± 5.1 <0.001
Sequences of BSI during hospitalization     0.014
 First episode 204 (82.6) 412 (73.2) 128 (72.7)  
 2nd episode 29 (11.7) 95 (16.9) 31 (17.6)  
 >2nd episode 14 (5.7) 56 (9.9) 17 (9.7)  
Concomitant infectious focusc     
 Meningitis 12 (4.9) 20 (3.6) 23 (13.1) 0.001
 Catheter-related bloodstream infection 12 (4.9) 30 (5.3) 20 (11.4) 0.012
 Necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage II)d 4 (1.6) 10 (1.8) 7 (4.0) 0.126
 Ventilator associated pneumonia 7 (2.8) 18 (3.2) 15 (8.5) 0.007
 Otherse 1 (0.4) 3 (0.5) 3 (1.7) -
  1. All data were expressed as number (percentage %), unless indicated otherwise
  2. NTISS neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, BSI bloodstream infection, NSD natural vaginal delivery, C/S cesarean section
  3. aIndicating the presence of chronic conditions or comorbidities at onset of bloodstream infection, and some patients had > 1 underlying chronic conditions. Each patient with an underlying chronic condition is compared with those without that specific condition
  4. bIndicating direct bilirubin ≥ 1.5 mg/dL or more than 50 % of the total bilirubin
  5. cIndicating the diagnosis of a infectious focus was concurrent with onset of bacteremia
  6. dBased on modified Bell’s staging criteria
  7. eIncluded osteomyelitis (2), septic arthritis (2), left thigh cellulitis (1), and urinary tract infection (2)