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Table 2 Domains of challenges and need for the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis from study conducted among medical doctors in Ujjain, Central India

From: ‘Multiple-test’ approach to the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis -perception of medical doctors from Ujjain, India

Theme Sub-theme Categories Codes
Challenges and need for the laboratory diagnosis of TBa Relationship between the basic elements of TB and the diagnostic process Symptoms prior to diagnosis Cough, Low-grade fever, on –specific symptoms
Clinical characteristics of TB Non-specific clinical signs, importance of clinical examination, many clinical signs together need to be interpreted
Inter-relationship between beliefs, knowledge and practice TB stigma associated with socioeconomic status, traditional beliefs, Utilization of traditional health services, TB related illiteracy
Contextual and prevailing conditions for TB diagnosis Laboratory system in action Improper knowledge of laboratory test, low knowledge of newer TB test, poor adherence to protocol, self made protocols, non-availability of TB specific tests, multiple tests prescription, empiric treatment is considered as diagnosis test, wrong notion for the TB tests
Lack of explicit and reliable diagnostic tool No definitive laboratory tests, laboratory test are considered supportive, multiple test result help diagnosis, sputum for AFBb is unreliable, PCRc and culture not useful in routine practice
Consumerism and the diagnostic process Private practice, choice of tests, diagnostic algorithm
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and the diagnostic process Importance of clinical history, Importance of clinical examination, difficult laboratory diagnosis, use of various modalities, invasive procedure
Context relevant need and intervention Organizational changes and education of health care providers and improving referral Early referral, easy accessibility, availability of infrastructure, education, use of common modes of communication
Formulation of simple and effective diagnostic protocol for all kind of TB Simple test, reliable diagnostic tool, guidelines
  1. atuberculosis; bacid-fast-bacilli; cpolymerase chain reaction