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Table 2 Factors associated with never-testing for HIV among men (n = 1261) as determined by multilevel multivariate logistic regression

From: Which adults in the Paris metropolitan area have never been tested for HIV? A 2010 multilevel, cross-sectional, population-based study

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
   aOR [95 % CI] aOR [95 % CI] aOR [95 % CI]
Individual variables     
Age 18–29 years 2.07 [1.32–3.24] 1.88 [1.11–3.24] 1.86 [1.08–3.18]
  30–44 years Ref. Ref. Ref.
  45–59 years 1.38 [0.97–1.96] 1.76 [1.20–2.58] 1.77 [1.21–2.59]
  60–69 years 2.89 [1.88–4.42] 3.16 [1.98–5.04] 3.23 [2.02–5.14]
Education level     
  None or primary school 3.29 [1.83–5.94] 2.82 [1.49–5.33] 2.51 [1.32–4.78]
  Secondary school 1.77 [1.24–2.51] 1.72 [1.18–2.52] 1.63 [1.11–2.39]
  Postsecondary Ref. Ref. Ref.
Socio-occupational category     
  Never worked 3. 33 [1.42–7.76] 3.62 [1.44–9.09] 3.34 [1.34–8.33]
  Blue collar 1.24 [0.73–2.09] 1.06 [0.60–1.89] 0.99 [0.56–1.77]
  Lower white-collar 0.81 [0.52–1.24] 0.74 [0.46–1.18] 069 [0.43–1.10]
  Tradespeople, etc. 0.91 [0.59–1.40] 0.95 [0.60–1.52] 0.90 [0.56–1.44]
  Upper white-collar Ref. Ref. Ref.
Health insurance status     
  HI + additional insurance 2.30 [1.29–4.09] 2.23 [1.19–4.18] 2.34 [1.24–4.39]
  HI for the poor Ref. Ref. Ref.
  HI with no additional insurance 2.43 [1.28–4.63] 2.43 [1.21–4.87] 2.46 [1.22–4.94]
Self-perception of HIV risk     
  High   Ref. Ref.
  Low   3.41 [2.29–5.08] 3.33 [2.24–4.96]
Knowing PLWHA     
  Yes   ref ref
  No   1.54 [1.09–2.18] 1.57 [1.12–2.22]
Stigma towards PLWHA     
  Score ≤ 2   Ref. Ref.
  Score > 2   1.70 [1.23–2.34] 1.67 [1.21–2.30]
Lifetime number of couple relationships    
  None   2.96 [1.75–5.00] 2.97 [1.75–5.01]
  One   2.19 [1.53–3.14] 2.16 [1.51–3.10]
  ≥ 2   Ref. Ref.
History of STI     
  Yes   Ref. Ref.
  No   2.88 [1.64–5.07] 2.89 [1.65–5.06]
Neighborhood variables     
Proportion of immigrants    
  First quartile    1.04 [0.64–1.70]
  Second quartile    ref
  Third quartile    1.12 [0.68–1.85]
  Fourth quartile    1.98 [1.18–3.33]
Level 2 variance   0.2495 (0.1064) 0.1545 (0.0942) 0.0978 (0.0803)
p-value   0.019 0.101 0.223
MOR   1.61 1.45 1.35
  1. Empty model: level 2 variance = 0.2898 (0.1087); p = 0.008; MOR = 1.67