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Table 1 Comparison of the characteristics of the HIV-tested and never-tested men (n = 1261) and women (n = 1360) in 2010

From: Which adults in the Paris metropolitan area have never been tested for HIV? A 2010 multilevel, cross-sectional, population-based study

  Overall (n = 2621) % Never-tested men (n = 537) % P-value (tested vs. never-tested) Never-tested women (n = 451) % P-value (tested vs. never-tested)
Age         
18–29 years 655 25.0 162/332 48.7 <.0001 133/323 41.3 <.0001
30–44 years 959 36.6 144/455 31.6   78/504 15.5  
45–59 years 700 26.7 143/332 43.0   140/367 38.1  
60–69 years 308 11.7 89/142 63.0   99/166 59.8  
Immigration status         
French/French parents 1688 64.4 329/832 39.5 .0031 257/856 30.0 .001
French/foreign parent (s) 544 20.7 116/243 48.0   111/301 36.7  
Foreigners 389 14.8 92/187 49.4   83/203 40.9  
Children and pregnancy         
No child under 20 years of age 1921 73.3 514/1201 42.8 .5360 333/720 46.3 <.0001
Child under 20 years of agea 701 26.7 23/60 38.8   118/640 18.4  
Education level         
None or primary school 145 5.6 52/75 68.8 <.0001 50/70 71.3 <.0001
Secondary school 941 35.9 234/468 50.1   173/473 36.6  
Postsecondary 1535 58.4 251/718 35.0   228/817 27.9  
Employment status         
Actively employed 1940 74.0 386/1012 38.1 <.0001 233/928 25.1 <.0001
All others 682 26.0 151/249 60.7   218/432 50.4  
Socio-occupational category         
Never worked 249 9.5 63/83 76.4 <.0001 91/166 54.9 <.0001
Blue collar 190 7.2 88/162 54.0   13/27 48.8  
Lower white-collar 948 36.2 147/362 40.7   202/586 34.5  
Tradespeople, salespeople 479 18.1 93/238 39.2   74/237 22.2  
Upper white-collar 758 28.9 146/416 35.1   70/342 20.5  
Monthly income (€/CU)         
First quartile (< 1100) 652 24.9 150/305 49.2 .0002 143/347 41.4 .0010
Second quartile (1100–1700) 663 25.3 142/304 46.8   113/359 31.5  
Third quartile (1701–2500) 657 25.1 130/333 39.0   84/324 27.3  
Fourth quartile (≥2501) 649 24.8 115/319 36.1   106/330 32.1  
Health insurance status final        
HI + additional insurance 2104 80.4 416/976 42.6 0.0380 345/1128 30.6 <0.0001
HI for the poor 178 6.8 27/86 31.4   36/92 39.1  
HI with no additional insurance 335 12.8 94/198 47.5   66/137 48.2  
Self-perception of HIV risk         
High 708 27.0 73/349 20.9 <.0001 49/359 13.7 <.0001
Low 1913 73.0 465/912 51.0   402/1001 40.1  
Knowing PLWHA         
Yes 1650 63.0 396/807 49.1 <.0001 341/844 40.4 <.0001
No 971 37.0 141/455 31.1   110/516 21.3  
Stigma towards PLWHA         
Score ≤ 2 1740 66.4 320/840 38.1 <.0001 267/900 29.7 .0002
Score > 2 882 33.6 217/421 51.6   184/460 39.9  
Self-reported sexual orientation         
Heterosexual 2515 95.9 522/1190 43.9 <.0001 435/1325 32.9 <.0001
Homo/bisexual 75 2.9 6/58 10.2   1/16 9.4  
Not answered 31 1.2 10/13 76.9   14/19 74.9  
Sexual partnerships during the previous 5 years         
No partnerships 243 9.3 43/84 51.9 <.0001 99/159 61.9 <.0001
One partnership 1638 62.5 336/712 47.2   302/926 32.6  
Multiple partnerships 740 28.2 158/465 33.9   50/274 18.1  
Couple status at the time of the survey         
Not in a relationship 569 21.7 143/279 51.5 <.0001 132/290 45.7 <.0001
Love affair 335 12.8 50/157 32.0   59/178 32.9  
Non-cohabiting couple 156 5.9 21/82 25.5   15/73 20.3  
Cohabiting couple 1562 59.6 323/743 43.4   245/818 29.9  
Lifetime number of couple relationships         
None 556 21.2 160/320 50.0 <.0001 116/237 49.0 <.0001
One 1317 50.3 285/565 50.5   268/753 35.6  
≥ 2 747 28.5 92/377 24.5   67/370 18.0  
History of STI         
No 2260 86.2 513/1113 46.1 <.0001 409/1147 35.7 <.0001
Yes 361 13.8 24/148 16.4   42/213 19.5  
Feeling of being supported         
Yes 2597 99.1 533/1248 42.7 0.561 443/1349 32.8 0.0082
No 24.5 0.9 5/14 35.7   8/11 72.7  
Living alone         
Yes 414 15.8 75/223 33.6 0.002 73/190 38.4 0.1077
No 2207 84.2 463/1038 44.6   378/1169 32.3  
Sense of belonging to a community         
No 1806 68.9 347/872 39.8 .0024 273/934 29.3 <.0001
Yes 815 31.1 191/390 48.9   177/426 41.7  
Practice of a religion         
Practices a religion regularly 492 18.8 86/183 47.1 .1313 136/309 44.0 <.0001
Practices a religion but not on a regular basis 483 18.4 85/199 42.8   97/284 34.3  
Affiliation but does not practice 699 26.7 154/353 43.6   101/346 29.1  
No practicing or affiliation 949 36.2 212/526 40.4   117/422 27.8  
Neighborhood variables         
Mean annual household income (€/CU)         
First quartile (< 17,000) 392 14.9 107/182 58.4 <.0001 81/209 38.8 .0026
Second quartile (17,000–21,999) 673 25.7 146/330 44.2   133/343 38.9  
Third quartile (22,000–29,519) 776 29.6 157/375 41.8   112/401 28.0  
Fourth quartile (≥ 29,520) 780 29.8 128/373 34.3   124/406 30.4  
Proportion of immigrants         
First quartile 791 30.2 155/378 41.1 .0001 113/413 27.3 .0011
Second quartile 735 28.0 127/385 33.1   113/350 32.3  
Third quartile 585 22.3 111/257 43.3   124/327 38.0  
Fourth quartile 511 19.5 143/241 59.4   101/269 37.4  
Proportion of unemployed persons         
First quartile 707 27.0 130/334 39.0 .0003 112/373 29.9 .0008
Second quartile 835 31.9 156/399 39.2   134/436 30.7  
Third quartile 622 23.7 143/315 45.5   98/306 32.0  
Fourth quartile 457 17.4 107/213 50.3   107/244 44.0  
Proportion of persons with a primary education or less         
First quartile 868 33.1 153/417 36.7 .0001 115/451 25.4 .0001
Second quartile 831 31.7 162/406 39.9   141/425 33.2  
Third quartile 515 19.7 112/243 46.3   110/272 40.3  
Fourth quartile 406 15.5 110/195 56.2   85/211 40.3  
  1. a including 42 pregnant women