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Table 4 Factors associated with poor outcomes among adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza and pneumonia, Emerging Infections Program, 2005–2008 (n = 1392)

From: Pneumonia among adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza virus infection—United States, 2005–2008

Characteristic Patients without poor outcomesa n = 950; no. (%) Patients with poor outcomesa n =442; no. (%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) Adjusted odds ratiob (95 % CI)
Age*     
≥75 years 472 (50) 191 (43) 0.8 (0.6–0.9) 0.7 (0.5–0.8)
<75 years 478 (50) 251 (57) Ref  
Sex     ---
Male 452 (48) 208 (47) 1.0 (0.8–1.2)  
Female 498 (52) 234 (53) Ref  
Race/Ethnicity     ---
White, Non-Hispanic 603 (64) 297 (67) 1.1 (0.8–1.4)  
Otherc 219 (23) 100 (23) Ref  
Unknown 128 (13) 46 (10) 0.8 (0.5–1.2)  
Virus Type     ---
Influenza A 700 (74) 237 (76) 1.3 (1.0–1.7)  
Influenza B 216 (23) 82 (19) Ref  
Unknown 34 (4) 23 (5) 1.8 (1.0–3.2)  
Nursing Home Resident* 139 (15) 89 (20) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 1.6 (1.2–2.2)
Underlying Conditions* 784 (83) 395 (90) 1.8 (1.3–2.6) ---
Chronic Lung Disease* 250 (26) 167 (38) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 1.6 (1.2–2.0)
Cardiovascular Disease* 413 (44) 239 (54) 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.4 (1.1–1.8)
Chronic Metabolic Disease* 298 (31) 183 (41) 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.3 (1.0–1.7)
Renal Disease* 123 (13) 93 (21) 1.8 (1.3–2.4) 1.5 (1.1–2.0)
Immunosuppression* 109 (11) 77 (17) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 1.5 (1.1–2.1)
  1. *P-value for bivariate association < 0.05
  2. aPoor outcome defined as ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation or death
  3. bVariables included in adjusted model included age, nursing home residence, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, chronic metabolic disease, renal disease and immunosuppression
  4. cOther Race/Ethnicities include Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaskan Indian, and multi-race