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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics of adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza with and without pneumonia, Emerging Infections Program, 2005–2008 (n = 4765)

From: Pneumonia among adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza virus infection—United States, 2005–2008

Characteristic Patients with pneumonia; n = 1392 no. (%) Patients without pneumonia; n = 3373 no. (%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI)
Age in years, median (range) 74 (18–101) 69 (18–102) --- ---
Age ≥75 years 663 (48) 1333 (40) 1.39 (1.23–1.58) 1.27 (1.10–1.46)
Male Sex 660 (47) 1430 (42) --- ---
Race/Ethnicity     
White, non-Hispanic 900 (65) 2016 (60) 1.41 (1.18–1.69) 1.24 (1.03–1.49)
Black, non-Hispanic 204 (15) 642 (19) ref ref
Hispanic 67 (5) 180 (5) 1.18 (0.85–1.63) 1.13 (0.80–1.58)
Othera 48 (3) 115 (4) 1.32 (0.91–1.92) 1.26 (0.86–1.85)
Unknown 173 (12) 420 (12) --- ---
Virus Type     
Influenza A 1037 (74) 2484 (74) 1.10 (0.95–1.28) ---
Influenza B 298 (21) 787 (23) ref ---
Unknown 57 (4) 98 (3) --- ---
Influenza Vaccineb     
Yes 677 (49) 1586 (47) 1.20 (1.04–1.38) 1.00 (0.86–1.17)
No 438 (31) 1228 (36) ref ---
Unknown 265 (19) 536 (16) 1.39 (1.16–1.67) ---
Nursing Home Residentc 228 (16) 382 (11) 1.53 (1.28–1.83) 1.37 (1.14–1.66)
Underlying Conditionsd 1179 (85) 2855 (85) 1.01 (0.85–1.19) ---
Asthma 174 (13) 599 (18) 0.66 (0.55–0.76) 0.76 (0.62–0.92)
Chronic Lung Disease 417 (30) 787 (23) 1.40 (1.22–1.62) 1.37 (1.18–1.59)
Cardiovascular Disease 652 (47) 1462 (43) 1.15 (1.02–1.31) 0.99 (0.86–1.13)
Chronic Metabolic Disease 481 (35) 1161 (34) 1.01 (0.88–1.15) ---
Renal Disease 216 (15) 499 (15) 1.05 (0.88–1.25) ---
Immunosuppression 186 (13) 348 (10) 1.33 (1.09–1.61) 1.45 (1.19–1.78)
Cognitive Dysfunction 136 (10) 276 (8) 1.22 (0.98–1.51) ---
Neuromuscular Disease 79 (6) 168 (5) 1.15 (0.87–1.51) ---
Seizure Disorder 51 (4) 127 (4) 0.97 (0.69–1.36) ---
Cancer 52 (4) 118 (4) 1.07 (0.77–1.49) ---
Other Condition 67 (5) 165 (5) 0.98 (0.73–1.32) ---
Symptom onset to admission, median days (range)e 2 (0–63) 2 (0–83) --- ---
  1. aOther Races include Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaskan Indian, and multi-race
  2. bIncludes 4730 cases with non-missing data
  3. cIncludes 4713 cases with non-missing data
  4. dChronic lung disease: all diseases other than asthma, reactive airways disease and cystic fibrosis; Cardiovascular disease: structural cardiac defects, arrhythmias, current ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure or other functional impairment; Chronic metabolic disease: diabetes, thyroid disorders, adrenal insufficiency and pituitary abnormalities; Renal disease: chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, glomerulonephritis, medullary cystic disease, and polycystic kidney disease; Immunosuppression: HIV/AIDS, immunoglobulin deficiency, and immunosuppressive therapy; Cognitive dysfunction: conditions where handling of respiratory secretions is impaired; Neuromuscular disease: muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, quadriplegia, spinal cord injury, and spinal abnormalities, and stroke; Cancers: diagnosed within the past 12 months and exclude non-melanoma skin cancers, lymphoma, and leukemia; Other conditions include pregnancy, hemoglobinopathy, lymphoma, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, Guillain Barré Syndrome
  5. eIncludes 4404 cases with non-missing data