Skip to main content

Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted baseline associates of improvement in TB symptom score (TBscore) in patients started on anti-TB treatment and followed-up at six months

From: Psychological distress and its relationship with non-adherence to TB treatment: a multicentre study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Crude estimate (95 % CI) P-value Adjusted estimate (95 % CI) P-value
Demographic and clinical characteristics
Age 0.002 (−0.007, 0.010) 0.7101 −0.013 (−0.022, −0.003) 0.0097
Male 0.357 (0.156, 0.557) 0.0005 0.263 (0.040, 0.486) 0.0208
Previously had TB 0.349 (0.124, 0.574) 0.0024 −0.228 (−0.491, 0.0353) 0.0901
HIV-infected −0.365 (−0.568, −0.162) 0.0005 0.406 (0.163, 0.6493) 0.0011
TBscore 0.212 (0.157, 0.266) <0.0001   
Allocation arm Xpert MTB/RIF 0.059 (−0.142, 0.261) 0.5607 - -
Culture-confirmed TB 0.368 (0.128, 0.607) 0.0027 0.587 (0.323, 0.850) <0.0001
K-10 score −0.045 (−0.056, −0.031) <0.0001 0.041 (0.024, 0.057) <0.0001
Substance use
Tobacco smoker 0.340 (0.127, 0.554) 0.0018 - -
Alcohol consumption     
 Never 0.00 (reference) N/A - -
 Social 0.088 (−0.151, 0.327) 0.4722 - -
 Regular 0.264 (0.000, 0.527) 0.0501 - -
 Heavy 1.346 (0.816, 1.876) <0.0001 - -
Educational characteristics
Educational level     
 None 1.711 (0.742, 2.679) 0.0006 - -
 Primary school 1.075 (0.216, 1.933) 0.0143 - -
 Middle school 0.703 (−0.147, 1.552) 0.1052 - -
 High School 0.718 (−0.137, 1.572) 0.1002 - -
 Intermediate or post-high school diploma 0.404 (−0.492, 1.299) 0.3771 - -
 Graduate or post-graduate 0.00 (reference) N/A   
TB health literacy score 0.0450 (0.011, 0.079) 0.0102 - -
Economic characteristics
Unemployed or retired −0.087 (−0.293, 0.120) 0.4105 - -
Personal monthly income     
 Tier 1 0.271 (−0.578, 1.119) 0.53181 - -
 Tier 2 0.354 (−0.503, 1.211) 0.4180 - -
 Tier 3 −0.066 (−0.977, 0.846) 0.8879 - -
 Tier 4 0.00 (reference) N/A - -
Household monthly income     
 Tier 1 0.948 (0.427, 1.469) 0.0004 - -
 Tier 2 0.749 (0.230, 1.269) 0.0048 - -
 Tier 3 0.282 (−0.292, 0.855) 0.3360 - -
 Tier 4 0.00 (reference) N/A - -
Sites - -
 Cape Town 0.322 (0.060, 0.585) 0.01635 −1.306 (−1.691, −0.921) <0.0001
 Harare −0.926 (−1.198, −0.655) <0.0001 −0.471 (−0.883, −0.059) 0.0253
 Lusaka 2.415 (2.091, 2.740) <0.0001 −2.393 (−2.822, −1.965) <0.0001
 Mbeya 0.5904 (0.202, 0.979) 0.0030 0.367 (−0.226, 0.960) 0.2259
 Durban 0.00 (reference) N/A 0.00 (reference) N/A