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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted baseline associates of treatment non-adherence in patients with culture-confirmed TB

From: Psychological distress and its relationship with non-adherence to TB treatment: a multicentre study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Crude odds ratio (95 % CI) P-value Adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) P-value
Demographic and clinical characteristics
Age 0.997 (0.970, 1.024) 0.8457 0.988 (0.947, 1.029) 0.5563
Male 0.859 (0.491, 1.517) 0.5971 0.895 (0.402, 2.246) 0.8951
Previously had TB 0.729 (0.346, 1.445) 0.3832 - -
HIV-infected 1.227 (0.693, 2.215) 0.4889 1.358 (0.557, 3.421) 0.5054
TBscore 0.868 (0.748, 0.998) 0.0524 0.639 (0.497, 0.797) 0.0001
Allocation arm Xpert MTB/RIF 2.038 (1.161, 3.648) 0.0144 2.174 (0.985, 5.015) 0.05993
K-10 score 1.073 (1.039, 1.112) <0.0001 1.082 (1.033, 1.137) 0.0012
Substance use
Tobacco smoker 0.651 (0.325, 1.239) 0.2055 - -
Alcohol consumption     
 Never 1.00 (reference) N/A 1.00 (reference) N/A
 Social 0.629 (0.296, 1.279) 0.2122 0.505 (0.177, 1.364) 0.1874
 Regular 0.701 (0.327, 1.435) 0.3422 0.707 (0.243, 1.986) 0.5137
 Heavy 2.371 (0.624, 9.029) 0.1933 14.83 (2.083, 122.9) 0.0090
Educational characteristics
Educational level     
 None 0.375 (0.030, 4.299) 0.4167 - -
 Primary school 0.500 (0.077, 4.022) 0.4668 - -
 Middle school 0.330 (0.049, 2.727) 0.2539 - -
 High School 0.684 (0.107, 5.428) 0.6874 - -
 Intermediate or post-high school diploma 0.789 (0.112, 6.743) 0.81183 - -
 Graduate or post-graduate 0.00 (reference) N/A - -
TB health literacy score 0.885 (0.809, 0.967) 0.0071 0.798 (0.696, 0.907) 0.0008
Economic characteristics
Unemployed or retired    - -
Personal monthly income     
 Tier 1 * 0.9839 - -
 Tier 2 * 0.9840 - -
 Tier 3 * 0.9838 - -
 Tier 4 1.00 (reference) N/A - -
Household monthly income     
 Tier 1 0.353 (0.102, 1.181) 0.089747 0.288 (0.064, 1.264) 0.0997
 Tier 2 0.275 (0.082, 0.898) 0.031567 0.350 (0.082, 1.445) 0.1462
 Tier 3 0.202 (0.039, 0.900) 0.041743 0.156 (0.024, 0.922) 0.0462
 Tier 4 1.00 (reference) N/A 1.00 (reference) N/A
Sites
 Cape Town 0.427 (0.121 1.593) 0.1868 - -
 Harare 3.709 (1.308, 12.285) 0.01956 - -
 Lusaka 1.036 (0.358, 3.461) 0.9499 - -
 Mbeya 0.900 (0.193, 3.980) 0.8888 - -
 Durban 1.00 (reference) N/A - -
  1. Cells marked with a dash indicate variables excluded from the final multivariate model
  2. *indicates where accurate estimation of the odds ratio failed due to too few observations