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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted baseline associates of psychological distress (K-10 score) at recruitment

From: Psychological distress and its relationship with non-adherence to TB treatment: a multicentre study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Crude estimate (95 % CI) P-value Adjusted estimate (95 % CI) P-value
Demographic and clinical characteristics
Age 0.045 (0.010. 0.083) 0.0132 0.031 (−0.003, 0.064) 0.0702
Male −2.499 (−3.371, −1.627) <0.0001 −1.447 (−2.278, −0.617) 0.0007
Previously had TB −0.541 (−1.561, 0.479) 0.2987 0.980 (0.094, 1.866) 0.0304
HIV-infected 3.059 (2.172, 3.946) <0.0001 0.061 (−0.763, 0.885) 0.8844
TBscore 0.698 (0.481, 0.914) <0.0001 1.000 (0.802, 1.199) <0.0001
Allocation arm Xpert MTB/RIF −0.245 (−1.118, 0.628) 0.5824 - -
Culture-confirmed TB −0.450 (−1.468, 0.568) 0.3866 - -
Substance use
Tobacco smoker −3.123 (−4.078, −2.169) <0.0001 - -
Alcohol consumption     
 Never 1.00 (reference) N/A 1.00 (reference) N/A
 Social −3.124 (−4.203, −2.045) <0.0001 −0.599 (−1.592, 0.395) 0.2378
 Regular −2.061 (−3.212, −0.910) 0.0005 −0.001 (−1.041, 1.039) 0.9991
 Heavy −1.362 (−3.496, 0.773) 0.2115 3.082 (1.256,4.907) 0.0010
Educational characteristics
Educational level     
 None −6.496 (−10.722, −2.251) 0.0027 −1.667 (−5.155, 1.82) 0.3489
 Primary school −3.751 (−7.664, 0.160) 0.0604 0.420 (−2.771, 3.610) 0.7966
 Middle school −5.224 (−9.140, −1.308) 0.0090 −0.528 (−3.762, 2.707) 0.7492
 High School −4.792 (−8.700, −0.884) 0.0164 −0.324 (−3.508, 2.860) 0.8418
 Intermediate or post-high school diploma −3.5906 (−7.674, 0.493) 0.0850 0.988 (−2.378, 4.354) 0.5651
 Graduate or post-graduate 0.00 (reference) N/A 0.00 (reference) N/A
TB health literacy score −0.409 (−0.551, −0.267) <0.0001 - -
Economic characteristics
Unemployed or retired 2.877 (2.012, 3.742) <0.0001 - -
Personal monthly income     
 Tier 1 1.578 (−1.982, 5.139) 0.3850 - -
 Tier 2 −1.291 (−4.879, 2.296) 0.4806 - -
 Tier 3 −0.804 (−4.637, 3.028) 0.6809 - -
 Tier 4 0.00 (reference) N/A - -
Household monthly income     
 Tier 1 −1.802 (−4.187, 0.583) 0.1389 - -
 Tier 2 −2.352 (−4.718, 0.015) 0.0516 - -
 Tier 3 −2.066 (−4.676, 0.543) 0.1209 - -
 Tier 4 0.00 (reference) N/A - -
Sites
 Cape Town 0.565 (−0.637, 1.767) 0.3569 1.525 (0.142, 2.907) 0.0309
 Harare 10.648 (9.440, 11.856) <0.0001 11.070 (9.802, 12.340) <0.0001
 Lusaka −0.636 (−1.845, 0.574) 0.3031 −1.281 (−2.623, 0.061) 0.0616
 Mbeya 8.423 (6.603, 10.243) <0.0001 6.923 (4.9945, 8.911) <0.0001
 Durban 0.00 (reference) N/A 0.00 (reference) N/A
  1. Cells marked with a dash indicate variables excluded from the final multivariate model