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Table 1 Cohort demographic, clinical, psychosocial and economic characteristics at baseline by site

From: Psychological distress and its relationship with non-adherence to TB treatment: a multicentre study

  Gugulethu TB clinic (Cape Town, South Africa) Mabvuku polyclinc (Harare, Zimbabwe) Kanyama TB clinic (Lusaka, Zambia) St. Mary’s day clinic (Durban, South Africa) Ifisi day clinic (Mbeya, Tanzania) Overall
Number of patients 419 400 400 200 83 1502
Demographic and clinical information
Age [median (IQR)] 39 (31–49) 38 (32–45) 35 (30–41) 37 (30–50) 37 (31–54) 37 (30–46)
Male (%) 259 (62) 185 (46) 269 (67) 104 (52) 42 (51) 859 (57)
Previously had TB (%) 178 (43) 67 (17) 85 (21) 52 (26) 2 (1) 384 (26)
HIV-infecteda (%) 133 (32) 324 (81) 268 (67) 121 (61) 49 (59) 895 (60)
TB symptom score [TBscore; median (IQR)] 4 (3–5) 4 (3–5) 5 (4–7) 5 (4–6) 7 (4–9)  
Culture-confirmed TB cases (%) 74 (18) 77 (19) 152 (38) 35 (18) 29 (35) 367 (24)
Kessler K-10 score       
 Median (IQR)e 20 (16–24) 30 (25–35) 16 (10–24) 18 (15–22) 29 (23–33) 22 (16–29)
 Graded as severe (≥30) (%) 31/413 (8) 201/400 (50) 49/399 (12) 16/199 (8) 38/74 (51) 335 (22)
Substance use
Tobacco smoker (%) 249 (60) 32 (8) 92 (23) 48 (24) 9 (11) 430 (28)
Alcohol consumptionb (%)       
 Never 74 (18) 252 (63) 205 (51) 119 (60) 48 (58) 698 (47)
 Social 169 (40) 86 (22) 67 (17) 49 (25) 5 (6) 376 (25)
 Regular 120 (29) 60 (15) 82 (21) 18 (9) 30 (36) 310 (21)
 Heavy 20 (5) 2 (1) 46 (12) 0 (0) 0 (0) 68 (5)
Educational and psychosocial characteristics
Educational levelc (%)       
 None 7 (2) 0 (0) 35 (9) 14 (7) 28 (34) 84 (6)
 Primary school 65 (16) 95 (24) 178 (45) 30 (15) 46 (55) 414 (28)
 Middle school 249 (59) 91 (23) 6 (2) 51 (26) 0 (0) 397 (26)
 High School 3 (1) 17 (5) 164 (41) 44 (22) 2 (2) 230 (15)
 Intermediate or post-high school diploma 20 (5) 52 (13) 17 (4) 60 (30) 7 (8) 156 (10)
 Graduate or post-graduate 1 (0) 11 (3) 1 (0) 6 (3) 0 (0) 19 (1)
TB health literacy scored [median (IQR)] 7 (5–9) 5 (4–7) 7 (4–9) 7 (5–9) 2 (1–4) 6 (4–8)
Economic characteristics
Unemployed or retiredf (%) 280 (67) 257 (64) 144 (36) 88 (44) 55 (66) 824 (55)
Personal monthly incomeg (%)       
 Tier 1 271 (65) 222 (56) 87 (22) 22 (11) 37 (45) 639 (43)
 Tier 2 124 (30) 104 (26) 125 (31) 102 (51) 18 (22) 473 (32)
 Tier 3 16 (4) 44 (11) 25 (6) 23 (12) 1 (1) 109 (7)
 Tier 4 3 (<1) 3 (<1) 0 (0) 10 (5) 5 (6) 21 (1)
Household monthly incomeg (%)       
 Tier 1 209 (50) 123 (31) 87 (22) 22 (11) 38 (46) 479 (32)
 Tier 2 170 (41) 165 (41) 121 (30) 98 (49) 32 (39) 586 (39)
 Tier 3 28 (7) 80 (20) 26 (7) 26 (13) 1 (1) 161 (11)
 Tier 4 5 (1) 31 (8) 0 (0) 11 (6) 5 (6) 52 (4)
  1. Abbreviation: IQR, interquartile range
  2. a18 patients (1 %) were of unknown HIV status
  3. b50 patients (3 %) had an unknown level of alcohol consumption
  4. c18 patients (%) had missing level of education data
  5. d26 patients (2 %) did not have sufficient data to compute a TB health literacy score
  6. e7 (<1 %) of patients did not have sufficient data to compute a Kessler K-10 score
  7. f4 patients (<1 %) were missing information about their employment status
  8. gThe monthly income tiers correspond to Under 600 ZAR, 600–3000 ZAR, 3001–7000 ZAR, and More than 7000 ZAR for the South African sites, and Under 100 US$, 100–300 US$, 301–700 US$, and More than 701 US$ for the other sites, respectively. 22 (2 %) patients were missing data about their personal income, and 7 (1 %) were missing data about household income