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Table 6 Treatment regimens, outcomes, and mortality in hepatic TB case series

From: A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection

Lead Author (Year) N Treatment regimens (n) Median duration (months) Outcomes Overall mortality (%) Comments
Alvarez (1983) [29] 130 H, S, E, PAS (130), biliary stenting (6) ND 87 improved on H, S, E, PAS; 3 decompressed with stent 12 Author recommends treatment for 12 months
Essop (1984) [18] 96 <2 drugs (10); >2 drugs (no R, H) (29); R, H, +others (16); no TX (37); undocumented (4) ND 52 improved; 40 died; 4 undocumented 42 No TX mortality: 95%; <2 drug mortality: 20%; R, H, +others mortality: 0%
Kok (1999) [44] 5 ATT (5) ND 5 improved 0 All local hepatic TB
Huang (2003) [49] 5 ATT (3), lobectomy (1), hepatectomy (2); no TX (2) ND 4 improved; 1 died 20 All local hepatic TB
Desai (2006) [14] 7 R, H, Z, E for 2 months, then R, H for 4 months (7) 6 6 improved; 1 died 14 All local hepatic TB
Amarapurkar (2008) [76] 38 R, H, Z, E for 2 months, then R, H for 10 months (38) 12 38 improved 0 None
Tai (2008) [19] 10 ATT (10), left hepatic resection (3) ≥6 9 improved; 1 LTFU 0 None
Hwang (2009) [50] 12 ATT (12) 12 10 improved; 2 had persistent disease 0 Disease persisted in patients w/ liver abscesses
Gounder (2012) [30] 20 R, H, Z, E (20) 9 12 improved; 8 died 40 2 patients died from MDR/XDR-TB
  1. TB = Tuberculosis; H = Isoniazid; S = Streptomycin; E = Ethambutol; PAS = Paraaminosalicylic acid; ND = Not documented; R = Rifampin; TX = Treatment; ATT = Anti tuberculous therapy; Z = Pyrazinamide; LTFU = Lost to follow-up; MDR/XDR-TB = Multiple/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.