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Table 3 Presenting signs and symptoms of hepatic TB patients

From: A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection

Lead author N Frequency of presenting sign/symptom (%)
(Year)   Hepatomegaly Fever Respiratory SX ABD pain LOW Splenomegaly Ascites Jaundice
Hersch (1964) [32] 143 74 97 66 55 83 35 ND 22
Alvarez (1983) [29] 130 96 65 ND 45 55 25 ND 35
Essop (1984) [18] 96 80 70 74 66 ND 40 25 11
Maharaj (1987) [20] 41 95 63 78 46 61 32 24 15
Chien (1994) [2] 22 50 64 32 59 32 18 23 18
Kok (1999) [44] 5 100 ND ND 80 ND 0 ND 60
Vilaichone (2004) [45] 20 80 100 ND 60 60 40 ND 20
Yu (2004) [60] 12 33 67 ND 83 42 ND ND 17
Desai (2006) [14] 7 100 100 ND 71 100 ND ND 29
Tai (2008) [19] 10 10 30 ND 40 20 10 10 0
Gounder (2012) [30] 20 85 ND 40 ND ND 30 5 35
Median (Range)   80 (10–100) 67 (30–100) 66 (32–78) 59.5(40–83) 57.5 (20–100) 30 (0–40) 23 (5–25) 20 (0–60)
  1. TB = Tuberculosis; SX = Symptoms; LOW = Loss of weight; ABD = Abdominal; ND = Not documented.