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Table 1 Association between demographic and clinical variables, treatment, maternal HIV status, HIV plasma viral load and CD4+ T-cell count and mortality in children and adolescents with vertically transmitted AIDS

From: Mortality in children and adolescents vertically infected by HIV receiving care at a referral hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

  Current Status*  
Variable Total Alive Dead p-value**
N % N % N %
Sex        
Male 80 45 71 47 9 35 0.240
Female 97 55 80 53 17 65  
Age-group at admission        
<1 year 60 34 43 28 17 65 0.001
≥1 year 117 66 108 72 9 35  
Skin color        
White 33 19 30 20 3 12 0.314
Other 144 81 121 80 23 88  
Place of residence        
Metropolitan region 123 69 107 71 16 62 0.340
Other 54 31 44 29 10 38  
ART initiated before 6 months of age      
Yes 34 20 25 17 9 38 0.023
No 134 80 119 83 15 63  
More than three months of ART        
Yes 161 96 144 100 17 71 0.001
No 7 4 0 0 7 29  
Severe immune impairment        
Yes 85 48 65 43 20 77 0.001
No 92 52 86 57 6 23  
CD4+ percentage        
>25% 67 38 62 41 5 20 0.024
15–24% 61 35 53 35 8 32  
<15% 47 27 35 23 12 48  
Baseline HIV viral load        
≥ 100,000 102 58 80 53 22 88 0.001
<100,000 73 42 70 47 3 12  
Mother had prenatal care        
Yes 95 55 81 55 14 56 0.933
No 77 45 66 45 11 44  
Mother’s diagnosis        
Prior to or during delivery 56 32 48 32 8 32 0.983
Following delivery 118 68 101 68 17 68  
Mother received prophylactic treatment      
Yes 39 22 32 21 7 28 0.469
No 135 78 117 79 18 72  
During pregnancy        
  Yes 25 14 20 13 5 20 0.386
No 149 86 129 87 20 80  
At delivery        
  Yes 33 19 28 19 5 21 0.813
No 140 81 121 81 19 79  
Infant received prophylactic treatment       
Yes 38 22 31 21 7 29 0.359
No 135 78 118 79 17 71  
Whether the entire ACTG 076 protocol was implemented    
Yes 12 7 10 7 2 8 0.807
No 163 93 140 93 23 92  
Type of delivery        
Vaginal 105 72 86 70 19 83 0.233
Cesarean 40 28 36 30 4 17  
Breastfeeding        
Yes 113 73 98 75 15 63 0.212
No 42 27 33 25 9 38  
Category of exposure of mother        
Injectable drug user 16 11 14 10 2 12 0.869
Sexual 134 88 119 88 15 88  
Transfusion 2 1 2 1 0 0  
How diagnosis of case was made        
Mother with AIDS became pregnant 7 4 4 3 3 12 0.003
Mother during prenatal care 30 17 30 20 0 0  
Mother at or after delivery, or father 61 35 56 38 5 20  
When the child became ill 75 43 58 39 17 68  
When a sibling was diagnosed 1 1 1 1 0 0  
Current care-giver        
Mother, father or other relative 149 85 126 84 23 92 0.298
Adopted or in an institution 26 15 24 16 2 8  
BMI adequate for age        
Yes 26 34 23 38 3 18 0.111
No 51 66 37 62 14 82  
  1. *There are missing values in some variables. **p-value of the chi-square test. The numbers in boldface highlight the statistical significance.
  2. Infectious Diseases and AIDS Pediatric Care Clinic of the State Pediatric Hospital between 2001 and 2011 (n = 177), Vitoria, Brazil.