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Table 4 Cox proportional regression model for risk of HIV infection or death at 18 months

From: HIV-free survival according to the early infant-feeding practices; a retrospective study in an anti-retroviral therapy programme in Makurdi, Nigeria

  HIV-infection or Death N (%) Univariate analysis p-value Multivariate aHR (95%CI) Analysis p-value
Mode of feeding     
EBF (Ref) 12 (23.5)    
EBMS 24 (47.1) 0.148 0.382 (0.175 – 0.832) 0.015
MF 15 (29.4) 0.000 5.182 (2.273 – 11.809) 0.000
Birth weight (grams)     
≥2500 (Ref) 47 (92.2)    
˂2500 4 (7.8) 0.568 0.808 (0.273 – 2.397) 0.701
Gestational age (weeks)     
≥37 (Ref) 41 (80.4)    
˂37 10 (19.6) 0.000 8.084 (2.921 – 22.375) 0.000
Mode of delivery     
ELE C/S (Ref) 2 (3.9)    
Vaginal 46 (90.2) 0.032 0.447 (0.045 – 4.452) 0.492
EME C/S 3 (5.9) 0.243 0.977 (0.078 – 12.298) 0.986
ROM     
NO ROM (Ref) 2 (3.9)    
˂4 hours 40 (78.4) 0.022 0.637 (0.224 – 1.811) 0.398
≥4 hours 9 (17.6) 0.706 NA NA
Vaginal tear     
No (Ref) 33 (64.7)    
Yes 18 (35.3) 0.022 1.598 (0.820 – 3.113) 0.168
Oral thrush     
No (Ref) 49 (96.1)    
Yes 2 (3.9) 0.227 0.317 (0.043 – 2.338) 0.206
Oral sores     
No (Ref) 50 (98.0)    
Yes 1 (2.0) 0.857 3.015 (0.285 – 31.927) 0.359
Mothers’ age group in years     
15-24 (Ref) 8 (16.7)    
25-34 34 (66.7) 0.704 NA NA
35-39 8 (15.7) 0.364   
≥40 1 (2.0) 0.837   
*Mothers’ CD4 count     
(Cells/mm3)     
≥500 (Ref) 8 (16.7)    
˂200 12 (25.0) 0.065 2.009 (0.683 – 5.904) 0.205
200-349 16 (33.3) 0.816 1.465 (0.596 – 3.600) 0.405
350-499 12 (25.0) 0.990 1.252 (0.544 – 2.883) 0.597
*Mothers’ viral load     
(Copies/ml)     
˂1000 (Ref) 25 (53.2) 0.265 1.468 (0.683 – 3.153) 0.325
1000-9999 10 (21.3) 0.001 2.526 (1.103 – 5.787) 0.028
10,000-99,999 11 (23.4) 0.864 0.617 (0.073 – 5.211) 0.658
≥100,000 1 (2.1)    
PMTCT intervention in the mother     
HAART 6 (11.8)    
ARVs 45 (88.2) 0.064 2.069 (0.784 – 5.460) 0.142
*Mothers’ hemoglobin     
≥10 g/dl (Ref) 13 (25.6) 0.058 0.755 (0.332 – 1.718) 0.530
10 g/dl 38 (74.5)    
Parity     
1 (Ref) 24 (47.1)    
2-4 22 (43.1) 0.942 NA NA
≥5 5 (9.8) 0.760   
Breast problems reported or diagnosed at any time between birth and the 18th month     
No (Ref) 50 (98.0)    
Yes 1 (2.0) 0.834 1.437 (0.187 – 11.203) 0.729
Mothers’ vital status at 18 month     
Alive (Ref) 51 (100.0)    
Dead 0 (0.0) 0.707 0.000 (0.000 – 0.000) 0.973
Mothers’ level of education    NA NA
Some (Ref) 38 (74.5)    
None 13 (25.5) 0.566   
Mothers’ marital status     
With a partner (Ref) 48 94.1 0.796 NA NA
Without a partner 1 (5.9)    
Mothers/Family monthly income     
Minimum and above wage (Ref) 12 (23.5)    
Below minimum wage (~105 USD) 39 (76.5) 0.781 NA NA
  1. Legends: Ref = reference variable; EME C/S = emergency caesarean section; ELE C/S = elective caesarean section; EBF = exclusive breast feeding; EBMS = exclusive breast milk substitute feeding; MF = mixed feeding; ROM = rupture of membrane; PMTCT = prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; HAART = highly active antiretroviral therapy; ARVs = antiretroviral prophylaxis; USD = United States dollars; * = pre-delivery values; NA = not available.