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Table 3 Cox proportional regression model for risk of HIV infection or death at 3 months

From: HIV-free survival according to the early infant-feeding practices; a retrospective study in an anti-retroviral therapy programme in Makurdi, Nigeria

Variable HIV-infection or Death N (%) Univariate analysis p-value Multivariate aHR (95%CI) analysis p-value
Mode of feeding     
EBF (Ref) 3 (20.0)    
EBMS 3 (20.0) 0.209 0.368 (0.059 - 2.305) 0.286
MF 9 (60.0) 0.000 44.12 (5.574 - 349.214) 0.000
Birth weight (grams)     
≥2500 (Ref) 15 (100.0)    
˂2500 0 (0.0) 0.402 0.000 (0.000 - 0.000) 0.982
Gestational age     
(weeks)     
≥37 (Ref) 11 (78.3)    
˂37 4 (26.7) 0.000 17.00 (1.817 – 159.083) 0.013
Mode of delivery     
ELE C/S (Ref) 2 (13.3)    
Vaginal 12 (80.0) 0.000 0.023 (0.000 – 1.271) 0.065
EME C/S 1 (6.7) 0.043 0.083 (0.001 – 7.157) 0.273
ROM     
NO ROM (Ref) 2 (13.3)    
˂4 hours 11 (73.3) 0.000 0.962 (0.085 – 10.835) 0.975
≥4 hours 2 (13.3) 0.029 NA NA
Vaginal tear     
No (Ref) 8 (53.3)    
Yes 7 (46.7) 0.031 2.309 (0.604 – 8.832) 0.221
Oral thrush     
No (Ref) 14 (93.3)    
Yes 1 (6.7) 0.0231 0.034 (0.000 – 2.952) 0.137
Oral sores     
No (Ref) 15 (100.0)    
Yes 0 (0.0) 0.719 0.000 (0.000 – 0.000) 0.990
Mothers’ age group in years     
15-24 (Ref)     
25-34 1 (6.7)    
35-39 10 (66.7) 0.319 NA NA
≥40 3 (20.0) 0.178   
  1 (6.7) 0.155   
*Mothers’ CD4 count (Cells/mm3)     
≥500 (Ref) 3 (21.4)    
˂200 3 (21.4) 0.329 1.592 (0.295 – 8.588) 0.588
200-349 2 (14.3) 0.499 0.359 (0.055 – 2.355) 0.286
350-499 6 (42.9) 0.093 0.139 (0.020 – 0.964) 0.046
*Mothers’ viral load (Copies/ml)     
˂1000 (Ref) 7 (50.0)    
1000-9999 2 (14.3) 0.998 1.421 (0.233 – 8.669) 0.703
10,000-99,999 5 (35.7) 0.004 10.68 (1.559 – 73.174) 0.016
≥100,000 0 (0.0) 0.981 0.000 (0.000 – 0.000) 0.994
PMTCT intervention in the mother     
HAART 3 (20.0)    
ARV 12 (80.0) 0.036 0.639 (0.068 – 6.010) 0.695
*Mothers’ hemoglobin     
≥10 g/dl (Ref) 3 (20.0)    
˂10 g/dl 12 (80.0) 0.570 NA NA
Parity     
1 (Ref) 3 (20.0)    
2-4 9 (60.0) 0.075 3.107 (0.628 – 15.369) 0.165
≥5 3 (20.0) 0.056 4.378 (0.415 – 46.155) 0.219
Breast problems reported or diagnosed at any time between birth and the 3rd month     
No (Ref) 14 (93.3)    
Yes 1 (6.7) 0.311 16.365 (1.359 – 197.091) 0.028
Mothers’ vital status at 3rd month     
Alive (Ref) 15 (100.0)    
Dead 0 (0.0) 0.814 0.000 (0.000 – 0.000) 0.997
Mothers’ level of education     
Some (Ref) 10 (66.7)    
None 5 33.3 0.274 NA NA
Mothers’ marital status     
With a partner (Ref) 13 (86.7) 0.167 NA NA
Without a partner 3 (13.3)    
Mothers/Family monthly income Minimum wage and above (Ref)     
Below minimum 1 (6.7)    
wage (~105 USD) 14 (93.3) 0.150 NA NA
  1. Legends: Ref = reference variable; EME C/S = emergency caesarean section; ELE C/S = elective caesarean section; EBF = exclusive breast feeding; EBMS = exclusive breast milk substitute feeding; MF = mixed feeding; ROM = rupture of membrane; PMTCT = prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; HAART = highly active antiretroviral therapy; ARVs = antiretroviral prophylaxis; USD = United States dollars; * = pre-delivery values; NA = not available.