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Table 1 Maternal and infant characteristics according to the early (first 6 weeks) feeding pattern

From: HIV-free survival according to the early infant-feeding practices; a retrospective study in an anti-retroviral therapy programme in Makurdi, Nigeria

Variables EBF N (%) EBMS N (%) MF N (%)
Gender    
Male 95 (48.5) 278 (51.1) 28 (45.9)
Female 101 (51.5) 266 (48.9) 33 (54.1)
Total number 196 544 61
Birth weight    
Mean (SD) 2.91 (0.35) 2.88 (0.43) 2.86 (0.36)
˂2500 g 17 (8.7) 59 (10.8) 4 (6.6)
≥2500 g 179 (91.3) 485 (89.2) 57 (93.4)
Gestational age at birth    
˂37 weeks 5 (2.6) 21 (3.9) 2 (3.3)
≥37 weeks 191 (97.4) 523 (96.1) 59 (96.7)
Mode of delivery    
Vaginal 189 (96.4) 513 (94.3) 59 (96.8)
EME C/S 6 (3.1) 27 (5.0) 1 (1.6)
ELE C/S 1 (0.5) 4 (0.7) 1 (1.6)
ROM    
˂4 hours 182 (92.9) 507 (93.2) 57(93.4)
≥4 hours 13 (6.6) 33 (6.1) 3 (4.9)
No ROM 1(0.5) 4 (0.7) 1 (1.6)
Vaginal tear    
Yes 50 (25.5) 133(20.8) 17 (27.9)
No 146 (74.5) 431 (79.2) 44 (72.1)
Infants’ oral thrush    
Yes 3 (1.5) 10 (1.8) 3 (4.9)
No 193 (98.5) 534(98.2) 58 (95.1)
Infants’ oral sore    
Yes 5 (2.6) 8 (1.5) 2 (3.3)
No 191 (97.4) 536 (98.5) 59 (96.7)
Mother’s age group in years    
Mean (SD) 28.8 (5.4) 29.0(5.4) 28.9(5.6)
15 – 24 38 (19.4) 99 (18.2) 13 (21.3)
25 - 34 133 (67.9) 360 (66.2) 40 (65.6)
35 - 39 21 (10.7) 71 (13.1) 5 (8.2)
≥40 4 (2.0) 14 (2.6) 3 (4.9)
*Mothers’ CD4 count    
(Cell/mm3) 176 490 55
Median (IQR) 408 (335–537.8) 403 (316–557) 377 (286–505)
˂ 200 10 (5.1) 39 (7.2) 6 (9.8)
200 – 349 41 (20.9) 119 (21.9) 13 (21.3)
359 – 499 79 (40.3) 178 (32.7) 21 (34.4)
≥500 46 (23.5) 154 (28.3) 15 (24.6)
Missing 20 (10.2) 54 (9.9) 6 (9.8)
*Mothers’ viral load    
(Copies/ml) 175 474 56
Median (IQR) 200 (200–2198) 200 (200–1468.8) 200 (200–2775)
˂ 1000 117(59.7) 328 (60.3) 39 (63.9)
1000 – 9999 33 (16.8) 95 (17.5) 9 (14.8)
10,000 – 99, 999 19 (9.7) 41 (7.5) 6 (9.8)
≥100, 000 6 (3.1) 10 (1.8) 2 (3.3)
Missing 21 (10.7) 70 (12.9) 5 (8.2)
^PMTCT Intervention in the mother    
HAART 188 (95.9) 505 (92.8) 58 (95.1)
ARV 8 (4.1) 39 (7.2) 3 4.9
*Mothers’ hemoglobin    
˂10 g/dl 21 (10.7) 86 (15.8) 11 (18.0)
≥10 g/dl 175 (89.3) 458 (84.2) 50 (82.0)
§Mothers’ Parity    
1 84(42.9) 263 (48.3) 28 (45.9)
2 – 4 81 (41.3) 237 (43.6) 28 (45.9)
≥5 31 (15.8) 44 8.1 5 8.2)
Mothers’ religion 188(95.9) 528 (97.1) 60 (98.4)
Christianity 8 (4.1) 16 (8.1) 1 (1.6)
Islam    
Breast problems reported or diagnosed at any time between birth and the 6th month    
Yes 4 (2.0) 14(2.6) 2 93.3)
No 196(98.0) 530 (97.4) 59 (96.7)
Mothers’ vital status at 18 month    
Dead 2 (1.0) 5 (0.9) 0 (0)
Alive 194 (99.0) 539 (99.1) 61 (100)
Mothers’ level of education    
None 52 (26.5) 109 (20.0) 13 (21.3)
Primary 44 (22.4) 133 (24.4) 12 (19.7)
Secondary 97 (49.5) 296 (54.4) 36 (59.0)
Tertiary 3 (1.5) 6 (1.1) 0 (0)
Mothers’ marital status    
Without a partner 7 (3.6) 29 (5.3) 5 (8.2)
With a partner 189 (96.4) 515 (94.7) 56 (91.8)
Mothers/family monthly income    
Below minimum wage (~105 USD) 149 (76.0) 409 (75.2) 52 (85.2)
Minimum wage and above 47 (24.0) 125 (24.8) 9 (14.8)
  1. Legends: N = number; SD = standard deviation; IQR = interquartile range; EME C/S = emergency caesarean section; ELE C/S = elective caesarean section; EBF = exclusive breast feeding; EBMS = exclusive breast milk substitute feeding; MF = mixed feeding; ROM = rupture of membrane; PMTCT = prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; USD = united states dollars; * = pre-delivery values; ^= Most of these women (336) were already on HAART before conception, 290 were commenced on HAART at the first trimester and 25 and 100 mothers started HAART during the second and the third trimester respectively;§ = significant p values exist among primiparous women who opted for EBMS when compared with EBF alone (P value 0.008) as well as when compared with infants on EBF and MF (P value 0.04).